Olayinka (1998) said that examination
malpractice is a “misconduct or improper practice in any examination with a
view to obtaining good result through fraudulent means”.
Some of the examination malpractices
include: Cheating, giraffing, taking prepared answers to the examination hall,
impersonation, writing on pieces of paper and hiding same under the private
part, writing on the palms, thighs and using a certain finger to indicate the
correct option in the objective test items such as thumb for ‘A’ and the
smallest finger for ‘B’ or ‘C’ option. Some unscrupulous invigilators do
indulge in dictating the correct answers to students, they also extend the time
allocated to the examination paper. Some teachers show examination papers to
their favoured students due to gratification either in cash or in kind. All
these are examination malpractices.
Some messengers abuse their offices by
selling photocopied question papers to their students, parents connive with
teachers and students to purchase examination question papers and so on.
The examination malpractices in this
country have got to an alarming peak, whereby all concerned citizens are taken
aback, thinking whether we have gone beyond redemption point (Olayinka, 1998).
Liman (1997) said that we read daily in
nearly all the Nigerian Newspapers reports of fraud here and there. The
impression at present is that our governments are touched, institutions of
learning are flagrantly defamed, parents are cast down and the West African
Examination Council (WAEC) formally untiring, seems to be throwing in the towel
by being unable to conduct a hundred percent fraud-free examination any longer.
The practice of examination fraud
initiates the manners of a syndicate operation and in keeping with the glorious
tradition, its said that whoever that refuses to co-operate is assaulted.
There are the disturbing trend surely
and they have serious implications for the educational system whose foundation
With teachers and parents so actively
involved in this unwanted fraud, the nation faces the prospect of breeding a
generation of dishonest youths, half baked college products and invariably, an
unreliable labour force for the future.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In the Nigerian society today,
examination fraud is an important aspect of indiscipline, ineptitude,
corruption and other vices that have eaten deep into the fabrics of the
Education sector. Examination malpractices spread across the country and
involve both sexes irrespective of tribe and religion.
The practice covers various forms of
leakages, certificate alteration and forgery, swooping answer scripts, beating
up examination invigilator for non-cooperation and so on (Obe, 1996).
Education in Nigeria these days has
been seriously undermined by the hydra headed monster called examination
malpractice. This is an obvious evil that be bedeviled all the strata of our
educational sector. Examination fraud seems to have gained the upper hand and
has conquered the morality and religiosity of the students. The attitude of
students towards examination malpractices is total and over whelming and almost
all caliber of students from secondary to the higher institutions of learning
participate in it.
According to Olayinka (1997) our public
examinations have lost its credibility, the certificate which is the main
reason of participation in examination fraud is questionable in terms of
academic excellence and prowess but to the participants the end truly justifies
the means because of the facts that Nigeria is now certificate oriented.
Olayinka is of the opinion that there are various reports of this unwanted
phenomenon know as examination malpractices in all the tiers of our school
system, for example the primary, the secondary and the tertiary institutions.
At the national level, efforts are being geared towards controlling all forms
of indiscipline in all spheres of our national activities, for instance, in
1979, a national conference on discipline and motivation in schools was
organized by the National Policy Development Centre (NPDC) in collaboration
with the Federal Ministry of Education (FME) with the full support of the
Federal and State government.
The basic purpose of that conference
was amongst other things, to find out the root causes of indiscipline in school
system, mostly examination fraud, drug abuse, cultism, prostitution among the female
students. It is a truism that of all the notable indiscipline in our school
system today, examination malpractice is the worst because it tends to destroy
foundation of the Nigerian educational system and lower its standards.
In an attempt to bring about great
order to the Nigeria society the military regime of Buhari in (1984) coined an
idea of War Against Indiscipline (WAI), which was meant to wage war against
prominent vices and to sanitize the society.
To extirpate or control all forms of
malpractices, the government of General Babangida in 1996, promulgated a decree
covering the miscellaneous offences which included examination malpractices
more so with very stiff penalty attached for example cheats at examinations are
to serve a jail term of twenty one (21) year. But suffice it say that this
heavy penalty did not in any way abate or deter students involvement and their
burning attitude towards examination malpractices.
Obviously, it seems that the general
attitude of students at all levels of our school system towards examination
fraud is high and unabated and this has affected their academic performance
greatly for example most students cannot even speak good and passable English
not to talk of writing well in English and many students cannot even defend the
stolen certificates which they got through Examination malpractices (Ejiogu,
1996) and this has brought disgrace to our educational system and the cheats in
STATEMENT OF THE
malpractices have been identified with such names as: the monster, national
disease, national disgrace, a cancer in educational underbelly.
Examination malpractices, which began
as isolated cases of examination leakage and other malpractices in all
institutions across the country, have turned out into an avalanche, thus
calling to question, the credibility of admissions and assessments based on
examinations held within the country (Obe, 1992).
The problems of examination fraud to
the growth and development of our educational sector are enormous. The three of
examination malpractices over the years, grown gigantic satanic roots spreading
its tentacles to even the most revealed of Nigeria institutions and examination
The problem is not just associated with
the lower examination bodies like (WAEC, JAMB or NECO) it is not strange to the
higher institutions such as the medical examinations, the law school
examinations and so on. The most striking issues is that students of various
beliefs and faiths, for example, religious fanatics who belong to Muslim or
Christian religious are often times found to be victims of this moral
misconduct called examination malpractice.
PURPOSE OF THE
The purpose of
this study is to investigate the influence of students attitudinal. behaviours
towards examination malpractice on their academic performance.
research questions were posed to guide the conduct of this study.
To what extent can the problem of examination malpractice be
How can we identify the culprits of examination malpractice?
How do we determine the extent of damages examination
malpractices has done to our educational system?
To what extent does examination malpractice affect the
academic performance of students?
Who do we blame for examination malpractice?
hypotheses were formulated and tested:
Students’ involvement in examination malpractice does not
significantly affect their academic performance in mathematics.
There will be no significant difference between the
involvement of male and female students in examination malpractice.
There is no significant influence of students behaviour
towards examination malpractice on their academic performance in English
work is going to assist in many ways in proffering solution to the problem of
examination malpractice in Nigeria and in Surulere Local Government Area of
Lagos State in particular for example.
The solutions provided by this study will go a long way in
helping the government and the Ministry of Education to tackle the problem of
This investigation will enable students to understand the
effect of examination malpractice n their academic performance.
Also the society will benefit from the investigation as well
as the solution proffered in this study.
This work will help parents, teachers and examination
officers to know the dangers involved in aiding or abetting their children or
students to cheat in examinations.
SCOPE OF THE
This study will
cover the causes, effects and solution to the examination malpractice in the
educational sector, especially in the Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos
This study has
been limited in order to have an in depth study of students behaviours towards
examination malpractice on their academic performance. This is because the
issue of examination malpractice is national phenomenon that cut across all the
sectors of our educational sector in Nigeria.
To make this
study understandable, all ambiguous words and terms are operationally defined
This is misconduct or improper practice in any examination with a view to
obtaining good result through fraudulent names (Olayinka 1998).
Fraudulent: The advanced
learners dictionary defines fraudulent as something got or done by deceiving or