1.1 Background to the Study
The predominant means of instruction has
traditionally been through verbal medium, either as spoken lecture or
written text. As more instructional resources of many different media
types become available to students, especially the sandwich ones through
the internet, there is a need for educators to understand when these
sources may be used effectively for instruction, as well as a need for
students to develop an additional set of literacy skills in order to
learn from these sources (Anyakoha, 1990).
Tyner (2000) argued that in the
information age, the concept of literacy has been simultaneously
broadened and splinted into many literacies in part because “the all
purpose word literacy seems hopelessly anachronistic, tainted with the
nostalgic ghost of a fleeting industrial age. The term information
communication technology is among several terms that have been
associated with literacy to emphasize that literacy extends beyond
reading and writing the alphabetic codes, and should include a variety
of audio-visual forms of representation. Associating information
communication technology with the literacy also highlights a belief
among many scholars and educators that conceptions of literacy or
studentship and how it is developed should not focus exclusively on
printed materials but should include electronic media that have moved
into the mainstream of communication especially at the end of the
Implicit in these views is that research
and practice related to literacy must be transformed to accommodate new
ways of accessing, process and using information by sandwich students
generally by and the sandwich students in particular (Aaron, 1997).
Information encompasses a wide range variety of things ranging from oral
and printed words, figures, statements, files and documents to such
intangible elements as sound signals, rays and waves. Whatever the form
information takes, the essence of information is that it conveys
UNESCO (1979), defined information
simply as “set of data recorded in a methodical manner” which includes:
any item of knowledge capable of facilitating the operation of a system;
and any numerical or alpha-numerical quantity processed by the machine,
the aggregate of information constitutes the data and results of a
problem. According to (Adamson, 1998), claims the term information
technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge.
Information communication technology , therefore can be defined as the
acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoral,
textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of
computing and telecommunication.
Telecommunication is a special kind of
communication in which information is conveyed over a long distance.
Information communication technology (ICT) also refers to the more
efficient and effective way of storing, accessing and updating
information than processes involving paper. In the recent time, sandwich
students, most especially, have benefited from the use of information
communication technology (ICT) such as computer, television, telephone
and the internet as a veritable sources of information in their academic
career or pursuit.
Uzoma (1999) opined that sandwich
students, andmost adolescents use the information communication
technology especially the internet to gather vital educational
information or materials, register their courses of study, check their
results of JAMB, NECO, GCE, POST UME etc. Onuoha (2000), posited that
the advent of information technology has made education more simple and
easy for students especially, the students in the sandwich studies at
University of Lagos. Onuoha claimed that information communication
technology has helped sandwich students in many ways such as project
writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective
studies. Onuoha further stated that information communication technology
has created a remarkable balance and effectiveness in the daily
activities of students mostly the sandwich students who are in the
habits of using the computer and the internets to carry out faster
storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or
As Adelekunnu (1994) puts it,
information communication technology (ICT) can be used to assist
sandwich students to get along with others, achieving self-reliance and
educational success. Also, it can help them to achieve professional
success and to adhere to societal values and norms. With information
technology, sandwich students achieve high academic laurels in school,
especially at the University of Lagos.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Information communication technology as
an effective means of storing, accessing, retrieving or collecting vital
information is often times used by sandwich students to carry out their
educational activities. With the advent of information technology,
sandwich students access information that lead them to successful
academic and professional achievement. Nevertheless, information
communication technology seems to have corrupted students, especially,
the adolescents who are in sandwich studies. For instance, some sandwich
students are often seen glued for hours to the television and the
internet watching or viewing pornographic films or pictures that are
capable of bending their minds and distorting their dispositions.
Studies have shown (Asobie, Achizie and Anywanwu., 1995), that some
sandwich students who browse the internets often are more corrupt than
those who do not.
Sandwich students who use the internet
often or watch the television involved in sexual promiscuity,
examination malpractices, stealing and other vices or indisciplines that
are always carried out in the school, especially at the University of
Lagos. In recent times, many sandwich students have been caught using
Global System Mobile Network (GSM) phones to carry out or perpetrate
examination malpractices; to connect friends and associates in crimes.
Both adults and students are found to
use the GSM phones to tell assorted kinds of lies and deceit in the
larger society and this has made corruption to be well rooted in the
society in which we live. The more advanced manner in which television
programmes are aired and commendable, but many of the programmes show
very bad and aggressive films and many sandwich students watch them
after which they start acting what they have seen and this has affected
their psyche negatively.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to
carry out an investigation on the sandwich studentship and information
communication technology utilization at University of Lagos.
Other purposes include the following:
- Examine the influence that information communication technology has influence on sandwich students’ behaviour.
- Assess the significant relationship between information communication technology and students’ academic achievements.
- Assess the constant use of ICT by sandwich more often than their counterpart part time students.
- Evaluate the socio-economic status of students who often use information communication technology in their educational career.
- Determine the gender difference in the use of ICT among sandwich students.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in this study:
- To what extent can the influence of information communication technology on sandwich students’ learning behaviour be examined?
- Is there any relationship between information communication technology and students’ academic achievement?
- Do sandwich students constant use information communication technology more often than their counterparts in part-time studies?
- Do students from high socio-economic homes use ICT often than their counterparts from low-socio-economic homes?
- Is there any gender difference in the use of information communication technology among sandwich students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The undermentioned hypotheses were tested in this study.
- There will be no significant relationship between information
communication technology and students’ learning behaviour at University
- There will be no significant relationship between information
communication technology and students academic achievement at University
- There will be no significant gender difference between in the use of ICT among sandwich students and the part time students.
- There will be no significant difference between the academic
performance of students from high socio-economic homes and those from
low-socio-economic homes due to use of ICT.
- There will be no significant gender difference in the use of information communication technology among sandwich students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
Sandwich students will benefit from the
findings and recommendations of this study because it help them to be
able to be more aware of the information communication technology in the
school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the
utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits
derivable from it. Teachers will find this study beneficial because with
the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would avail
themselves of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information
communication technology because of the numerous benefits that can be
derived from it. With the study also, information communication
technology and their functions.
This study will assist the school
authority to be able to know more about information communication
technology and its functions especially in the life of the sandwich
students. The recommendations of this study will enable the school
authority to expand its policy on the availability and usage of
information communication technology in the school system in Nigeria.
The society will benefit from this study, because it will assist the
society to be information communication technology friendly due to the
advantages it has. This study will afford the society to know more about
information communication technology and its functions in the world
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will cover the influence of
information communication technology utilization on sandwich students
learning outcomes at University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Operational terms were be defined in this study thus:
Information technology –
This refers to the application of scientific knowledge. Information
communication technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and
dissemination of vocal, pictoal, textual and numerical information by a
micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication, Asiobie,
Sandwich Studenship –
This refers to students who are involved in sandwich studies. Students
who were admitted without Joint Admission and Matriculation Board
Utilization – Putting something in use or utilizing.
Assessment – This refers to the act of assessing, the values of amount at which something is calculated, a judgment or opinion.
Evaluation – To calculate the value or degree of.
Accessible – This refers to get or get into, to or at. Easily persuaded or influenced.
Acquisition – The act of acquiring something or someone.
Message – A broken or written piece of information passed from one person to another; the important or central idea etc.