EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MANPOWER IN LAGOS STATE
The study examined evaluation of the
effectiveness of training and development of educational manpower in
Lagos State. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess
the opinions of the selected respondents using the questionnaire and
the sampling techniques. A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were
selected comprising of fifty (50) teachers made up of 25 males and 25
females; one hundred and fifty (150) students made up of 75 males and 75
females and used in the study to represent the entire population of the
study. Three null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the
independent t-test and the Pearson Product Moment Correlational
Coefficient statistical tools at 0.05 level of significance. At the end
of the analyses, the following results emerged:
1. Hypothesis one found that there is a significant effect of training on teachers’ productivity in the school sector.
2. Hypothesis two revealed that
there is a significant relationship between training of teachers and
students’ academic performance in schools.
3. Finally, hypothesis three
indicated that there is a significant relationship between the training
of teachers and teachers’ productivity levels in the school sector.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Concept of Training and Professionalism 9
2.2 Strategies Involved in Effective Classroom Management 13
2.3 The Concept of Human Resources Management 25
2.4 Importance of Human Resources Management 28
2.5 Staff Development and Job Effectiveness 30
2.6 Staff and Student Personnel Administration 34
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 38
3.0 Introduction 38
3.1 Research Design 38
3.2 Population of the Study 38
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 39
3.4 Research Instrument 39
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection 39
3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis 40
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF
4.1 Introduction 41
4.2 Descriptive Analyses of Teachers’ Biographic Data Based on Age, Sex,
Marital Status and Duration of Service 41
4.3 Descriptive Analyses of Teachers’ Responses to Questionnaire
Using the Research Questions 44
4.4 Descriptive Analyses of Students’ Bio-Data According to Sex and
Age Range 49
4.5 Descriptive Analyses of Students’ Responses to Questionnaire
Using the Research Questions 51
4.6 Hypothesis Testing 57
4.7 Summary of Findings 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISUSSIONS, IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS
AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES 61
1.1 Summary of the Study 61
1.2 Discussion of Findings 62
1.3 Implication of the Study 64
1.5 Recommendations 65
1.6 Suggestion for Further Studies 68
1.1 Background to the Study
Onuoha and Uzodinma (2000), state that
once an organization has employed those it considered qualified,
suitable and competent to perform those jobs for which they were hired,
it must embark on an effective training and development programme that
is necessary to enhance the productive capabilities of the newly hired
employees, while it also embarks on training and retratining the old
workers or employees in order to maximize their productivity.
Gardner (1993), defines training as an
organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a
definite purpose. It is a process for equipping employees, particularly
the non-managerial employees. Training would enable employees to improve
on their performances and when they improve on their performances, it
will bring about high and increased productivity in an organisation or
According to Uzorue (1994), the
objective of training and retraining teachers in the school sector is
majorly to enable them to perform their work well in the school and
bring about high work performance of the teachers and high academic
achievement of the students. Uzorue opines that the teacher’s job is a
tedious one, which requires skills and proficiency to carry out
effectively. Therefore, training of teachers is a sine qua non in the
teaching profession. Ayodele (2001) lent credence to the opinion of
Uzorue (1994), by stating that there is a great difference between the
work performance of teachers who are well trained and those who are not.
He further claimed that there is a difference in the work performance
of teachers who are experienced as a result of training and long service
and non-experienced ones who may not have probably underwent training
as professional teachers.
As Uzomah and Amaonye (1991) put it,
because of the fact that ours is a world that is currently undergoing
rapid changes, particularly in the area of skill acquisition and
technological capability, training is therefore, not exclusively
reserved for newly employed staff, but also for the old ones as well. It
is therefore, important for the purpose of enhancing individual
performance that training and developing should be made a continuous
process that should last through an employee’s working life. This is
because low and middle level teachers need to adapt to new skills and
technologies while managers of the school (principal’s) and other top
management personnels in the school need deeper knowledge and
understanding of their jobs, the jobs of others, and a good
understanding of where and how their jobs fit into the wider school
pattern an understanding of government activities and societal
constraints and a sensitive social awareness of the environment within
which the school as an organization operates.
According to Gerald (1998), training of
staff is important in the following ways: to remove performance
deficiency; to match the employees’ abilities with the job requirements
and organizational needs; to enhance organizational viability and the
transformation process, to cope with the new technological advancement;
to improve quality and quantity of work; to improve productivity and
efficiency; to help staff cope with increased organizational complexity
resulting from increased mechanization automation. Training, sometimes,
may be undertaken to enhance employees’ self-esteem; to boost staff
morale and thereby improve organisational climate, especially, in the
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Training is very essential in the
creation of high productivity of staff, especially teachers in the
school system. When teachers are not trained, it brings about emptiness
in teaching and learning process. According to Adekunle (1995),
non-trained teachers in the school are not only cheats, they are not
helping the school system to grow and develop. People who teach in the
school without having the required qualities and passing through the
rigorous of training, are the causes of low standard of education and
low students’ academic performance.
The school system in Nigeria, has the
problem of untrained teachers who have greatly infiltrated into the
teaching profession, because they think that teaching is all-comers’
job. They think that everyone knows how to teach, but they forget that
not everyone is trained to teach. Untrained and inexperience teachers
lack the mastery of content (what to teach), the methodology (how to
teach). Any teachers who do not possess the mastery of both what to
teach and how to teach cannot be said to be a teacher in the first
place. Untrained and teachers therefore, lack the skills and the
capabilities to achieve the goods in teaching and learning process.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to
examine the teachers’ training and work performance in selected
secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Other objectives of the study include:
(1) To find out whether training affects teachers’ productivity in the school.
(2) To evaluate the training needs of teachers in the school.
(3) To investigate whether there is difference between the productivity of trained teachers and untrained ones.
(4) To differentiate the productivity of male and female teachers in the school.
(5) To find out whether
there is a relationship between training of teachers and academic
performance of students in the school.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be raised in this study:
- Will training affects teachers’ productivity in the school sector?
- How can we evaluate the training needs of teachers in the school?
- Is there any difference between the productivity of teachers who are trained and those who are not?
- How can the productivity of male and female teachers be differentiated?
- Is there any relationship between training of teachers and students’ academic achievement in the school?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study:
- There will be no significant effect of training on teachers’ productivity in the school sector.
- There will be no significant difference between the productivity of teachers who are trained and those who are not.
- There will be no significant relationship between training of teachers and academic performance of students in the school.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following individuals in many ways:
- Principals: This study will help managers of the
school system, benefit from the findings and recommendations made by the
researcher. This is because, the principals would be able to understand
the essence of maintaining a conducive atmosphere in the school. It is
important that principals maintain good relationship with their teachers
and students so that they will be able to have good school climate
running in the school for the overall maximization of high productivity.
- Teachers: They will benefit from this study because
it will enable them to be able to know more about the essence of having
good principal – teacher relationships in the school, and how bad
principal – teacher relationship can affect the school atmosphere badly.
This is because nothing works in an organization or school where there
is rancour and bad blood amongst principals, teachers and school
community or even students and parents. For the school to achieve its
goals and objectives, it must operate on good climate or cordial culture
which promote high productivity.
- Parents: Parents being one of the important
stakeholders in the school system, ought to be in good relationship with
the principals, the teachers and all that are in the school. Therefore,
assisting parents to be able to be well informed on the importance of
having their children in schools where there is good relationship among
the school personnel and schools where is provision of infrastructures
and other amenities in the school.
- Society: The society will be able to appreciate
this study because, it will enable them to have the insight on the
essence of school climate which promotes high productivity of both
teachers and the students. Not only the society, the young researchers
and others in the society will find this study a good reference material
in their studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study covered the examination of
the staff training and teachers’ productivity in selected secondary
schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.