EFFECTS OF PRACTICAL METHOD ON THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS. (A CASE STUDY OF OJODU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN LAGOS STATE)
The aim of this study was to find
out the effect of practical method on the effective teaching of physics
in senior secondary schools. The study participants were drawn out of 5
secondary schools in both private and government secondary schools in
Ojodu Local Government Area of logos State. A total of one hundred and
ten (110) which comprises of hundred students and ten teachers
participated. Data were collected through questionnaire, data collected
was analysed through the use of chi-square. From the result, it was
shown that practical methods affect the teaching of physics and there is
significant difference between practical method of teaching and lecture
method. The implications of these finding were discussed and it was
therefore recommended that government and other stakeholder in the
ministry of education should ensure that school laboratories are well
equipped and teacher should use mostly practical method in teaching
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 UNDERLYING THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
3.5 ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENTS
3.6 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENTS
3.7 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF THE RESFULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS
SUMAMRY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Physics is generally regarded as the
nucleus of all technology. This simply means that physics controls all
forms of technology. It also affirm that behind every technology, there
At senior secondary school level,
physics is defined as a branch of science that deals with matter,
energy, their relationship and their measurements.
The learning of physics is affected by
the mathematical background of the learner and the method use by the
teacher in teaching concepts (Topics) in physics.
The teaching methods that can be used by
teacher in effective teaching of physics in senior secondary schools
are: (1) Theoretical method and (2) practical method.
Physics in Nigerian Secondary Schools is
taught by a lecture approach alone in 62% of the Secondary Schools
there. This is what Tropp (1972) described as a “chalk and talk”
teaching approach, from the extensive observation she made while on a
trip to Nigeria to study the Secondary School Science programmes in
Nigeria. She observed that despite the fact that the West African
Examination Council mandated that because of its very empirical nature,
physics must be studied by the aid of the laboratory classes, this was
not being done. Also, the West African Council on Science Education
noted in its 1969 annual report that physics was not being studied or
taught with the aid of laboratory activities in Nigerian Secondary
Schools. It noted, “our studies indicate that this attitude is
widespread in the vast majority of schools in these countries.”
Nigerian Secondary School Students who
are taught physics by the “chalk and talk” lecture approach have
repeatedly demonstrated poor student motivation and achievement in and
from their physics education programme. This is evidenced by the poor
results in both the in-school teacher-made physics examinations and in
the external West African School Certificate physics examinations
conducted by the West African Examinations Council for secondary school
students planning to graduate at the end of their five year school
programme (Ashby, 1970). Ashby described the number and quality of
passes in physics from 1966 - 1969 as “extremely unsatisfactory.” The
problem of poor achievement by Nigerian Secondary School Physics
Students is widespread and consistent. It is possible that these Physics
candidates did poorly in the Council’s physics examination because they
were taught this subject by lectures alone rather than by lectures as
well as laboratory. Ali (1975) noted, for example, that in 1974, 29% of
all the Nigerian Secondary School Students who sat for the West African
School Certificate Examination in physics passed this subject. In 1977,
the figure of passes in this examination was 28%; even lower than 1974’s
Furthermore, All (1975) noted that there
are considerable data available which suggest that students, probably,
do very poorly in physics because the method of teaching they are
exposed to, mostly lecture method, does not enable them to go beyond the
lowest hierarchy of learning outcomes in physics, the knowledge or
factual recall level. The higher hierarchies of cognitive learning
applications, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, following Bloom’s et
al (1964) model arc not attained by physics students taught by lectures.
This is probably because lectures do not provide the students the
opportunity to comprehend, apply and analyse physics problems. Hence,
they probably do poorly in these higher cognitive hierarchies in their
secondary school physics examinations.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Practical work in senior secondary
schools takes the firm of laboratory experiment, demonstrations,
framework and excursions. Teacher’s innovativeness and creativity could
also introduce novel modes of practical investigations.
Of late, efforts are being made to
utilize virtual laboratory that rely on interplay of the computer and
internet. Clearly, every effort should be made to create interest in the
students to study physics.
Practical method of teaching as defined
by prince (2004) is a learning method in which students are engaged in
the learning process. In practical method of teaching in the words of
Davies, Harfield, Heder Panko Kenley (2007) “students actively
participate in the learning experience rather than sit as passive
Practical method of teaching is
different from traditional/ theoretical method of teaching on two
points. First, active role of students and second, collaboration among
The word teaching means to impact knowledge or values in an individual.
The word effect means outcome or result. It could be positive or negative.
Practical method involves the use of
apparatus in teaching physics i.e. teaching and learning activities is
based on ‘real life experience’ help learners to transform knowledge or
information into their personal knowledge which they can apply in
different situations. As a matter of fact, practical teaching method
“frequently involves the use of manipulative materials”.
There is a famous saying of Confucius
about the success of the students learning that is given below, “Tell
me, and I will forget, show me, and I may remember, involve me, and I
Practical teaching method help learners
to ‘construct mental models that allow for higher order performance such
as applied problem solving and transfer of information and skills.
Also, in a practical class, the teacher is a facilitator, motivator,
guide and a coach not a sage on a stage (Stolen, 2009).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The major problem of this study is that,
physics as a subject is not easy to teach considerable number of
students usually opt out of science class due to their poor performance
in physics thereby resulting into how enrolment in the number of
students studying physics. This research taken on an era where teachers
are being asked to do more with less resources both theoretically and
A number of factors have been discovered to influence the teaching of physics through practical method.
Developmental process requires input
from all sectors in order to enhance the country’s technological
standing in the run-up to social and industrial transformation. For
teachers and students to attain their full potential and to contribute
meaningfully in the country’s technological and scientific development.
The problems to be addressed are lack of well equipped laboratory, lack
of laboratory space and limited supply of laboratory equipments.
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The research is carried out to identify
some of the effects of practical method on the effective teaching of
physics in senior secondary schools level and some possible strategies
for improvement. It is assumed that the outcome of the study will enable
the teachers policy makers and education authority to further develop,
review the school curriculum of science, physics to be exact and take
formal bold step on the corrective measures to improve practical and
teaching in senior secondary schools so that they could be relevant in
future science and technological development in the country.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study is aimed at the
provision of basis for effective guidance to modify students
understanding, view or perspective toward physics as a science subject.
It is believed that hopefully, the outcome or result of this study will
improve the problems of teaching and practiclas in senior secondary
schools in Nigeria.
The following questions were asked in order to guide the study.
- Does practical’s affect the teaching of physics?
- Is there any significance difference between practical and lecture method of teaching physics.
In the course of this study, the hypothesis below were verified.
- There is no significant difference between practical method of teaching physic and method.
- There is no significant difference between the academic performance of practical students and method.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study cover 5 selected senior
secondary schools in Ojodu Local government Area of Lagos State. Thus
the effects of practical of effective teaching of physics in senior
secondary schools will be examined. The research was carried out in both
private and government schools in Ojodu Local Government Area of Lagos
CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES AND TERMS
1. Physics: The study of matter, energy, their relationship and measurement.
2. Science: A body of knowledge which is acquired through careful observation and experiment.
3. Teaching: To impact knowledge or social and moral values.
4. Modify: To slightly change something especially in order to make it more suitable for a particular purpose.