BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
University education is very significant in this 21st century
for a resourceful economy in this competitive global economy. It is a vibrant
tool used in training the workable workforce of an economy. University
education provides individual and societal benefits; for an individual it gives
him the privilege of being employed, earn a better salary and upward mobility.
Other benefits attached are: better quality of living, improved health and
greater opportunities in life.
Bearing the individual and societal benefits of education in mind, access
and gender equality of youths are necessary in achieving individual goals and
social justice. According to UNESCO’s principles, every child must have equal
opportunity and access to education (principle of non-discrimination) without
regard to race, sex or any distinctions, economic or social (UNESCO’s
homepage). Thus, there is much need to promote equity in the education sector.
Why because a female who is denied access to education based on some factors
like religion, family background, etc represents a loss of human capital for
society. The absence of access to university education and its success
contributes to underdeveloped human resources.
The argument that women in traditional Nigerian society are discriminated
is much discussed by scholars of history of education in the country. It has
been discovered from findings that women contribute immensely to national and
international development of a country (Sator, 1992; Ekejiuba, 1991; Okonjo,
1991). The barrier placed on Nigerian women calls for much attention. Yet it is
quite obvious that women are more involved than men in most areas of the
economy, like in agricultural which was in the 90’s the mainstay of Nigerians
(Adeyokunu, 1981). Despite this, women are victims of social order and treated
as second class citizens of the country. They are discriminated in the
education sector, labour market, and political sphere. This discrimination has
led to the increase in poverty, as their rights are suppressed and education
deprived which is needed to improve their state of living. A very obvious area
where Nigerian women face imbalance is in the education sector. This imbalance
in the education sector has created much room for other forms of discrimination
amongst them (Afigbo, 1991).
However, many studies have reported that socio-economic improvement of
nations can be greatly achieved through women education and empowerment
(Stephen, 1992; Palmer and Almaz, 1991; Caldwell, 1979). Little wonder
Rathgeber (2003), in his study raised the issue that there is need to integrate
women in social and economic development. It is due to this that there have
been efforts to encourage women education in Nigeria in recent times. A clear
example is the efforts of informal groups and Non Governmental Organizations
(NGOs), who through their programmes have promoted female education in the
north and south parts of the country; alongside efforts by the state
governments of the north to promote education for women. For instance the
establishment of girls schools in different states of the country.
Furthermore, the National Universities Commission Annual Reports since
1988 show a reasonable increase in female education in Nigeria compared to what
it was some decades ago. Similarly, it is noticeable that the numbers of
females that are in post-primary education have reached up to the number of
males in southern Nigeria.
The standing of women in sub-Saharan African universities portrays
women’s position in the society. Women in sub-Saharan Africa are
underrepresented in education and those of them that force their way to be
educated opt for courses that are termed “female courses” like arts, education
and social sciences course. On graduation, women are faced with poor paying
jobs, unemployment and fewer chances to advance.
Meanwhile, the primary aim of education is to produce a formidable work
force of a country. Thus, if Nigerian and African women as a whole are given
access to education, it will broaden their skills and give them access to new
resources; which is an added advantage to the economy (Shaheed, 1995).
Globally, it is estimated that women labour force participation has increased
from 36% in 1990 to 40% by 1997 (Razavi, 2003). Recent data indicate that,
globally over the last five decades women’s labour force participation has
increased and women today make up over 45% of the world’s workforce with more
women than ever before participating in the labour force or actively seeking
for jobs (ILO, 2007). But besides the above general picture country specific
data from the ILO and United Nations Population Division (EFA Global Monitoring
Report, 2003/04) show significant increase in female labour force participation
in such countries as Japan, Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand.
However, in other to improve women’s access to university education in
Nigeria: trends, barriers and enhancement strategies, this study is being
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over time, gender inequality has always been a global problem and it is
still noticeable in the education system of Nigeria. For some obvious reasons
in Nigeria, women are not granted access to education because of religion,
family background, unstable income, etc.
Before now, it was believed that women education ends in the kitchen.
Some Nigerian parents still stick to this saying that they cut-off their female
children from going to school. They see as waste of resources sending a female
child to school, as she will definitely be married off to a man.
Another problem associated with this study is the problem of admission.
In Nigerian universities, the trend of giving admission is against the females.
They are discriminated from studying some courses because of their sex.
All these and more are the problems this study seeks to proffer solutions
The major objective of
this study is to examine women and their access to university education in
Nigeria: trends, barriers and enhancement strategies.
Other specific objectives include:
1.To investigate the current rate at which women have access to education
2.To examine the significant relationship between women education and
3.To discover the consequences of women’s lack of access to education in
4.To examine how to expand access to women’s university education in
The following research questions are generated to guide this study:
1. What is the current rate at which women have access
to education in Nigeria?
2. What is the significant relationship between women
education and Nigeria’s GDP?
3. What are the consequences of women’s lack of access
to education in Nigeria?
4. How should access to women’s university education in
Nigeria be expanded?
H0: There is no significant relationship between
women education and Nigeria’s GDP.
H1: There is a significant relationship between
women education and Nigeria’s GDP.
OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to inform, educate, sensitize and enlighten the
general public, university administrators, non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) and government on women and their access to education.
It is meant to educate the general public that they should debunk the
notion that females should not be granted education. It is a wrong notion and
should be dealt with, even as according to UNESCO, everyone has a right to
education not minding their race, sex or any distinctions, economic or social
University administrators have a role to play in giving women access to
education. They are supposed to give admissions to students to the desired
departments of their choice based on merit and not other factors.
Also, NGOs and the government have serious roles to play in promoting
women access to education. They need to embark on policies and programmes that
will help in achieving this.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to
know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more
on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide
for other work or study.
OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to women and their access to university
education in Nigeria: trends, barriers and enhancement strategies.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing
for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of
data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.
This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
ACCESS: In education, the term access
typically refers to the ways in which educational institutions and policies
ensure—or at least strive to ensure—that students have equal and equitable
opportunities to take full advantage of their education. Increasing access generally
requires schools to provide additional services or remove any actual or
potential barriers that might prevent some students from equitable
participation in certain courses or academic programs. Factors such as race,
religion, gender, sexual orientation, disability, perceived intellectual
ability, past academic performance, special-education status, English-language
ability, and family income or educational-attainment levels—in addition to
factors such as relative community affluence, geographical location, or school
facilities—may contribute to certain students having less “access” to
educational opportunities than other students.
UNIVERSITY: Is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic
degrees in various subjects. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
TREND: A general direction in which something is developing
BARRIER: A fence or other obstacle that prevents movement or
ENHANCEMENT: A change or the process of change, brought about,
to improve a product or service and to increase its value, is known as
enhancement. A variety of enhancements can be used in business to increase the
efficiency and effectiveness of different processes and functionalities.
STRATEGIES: A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or
Sator SF (1992). “Implications of Change for Women Managers”. Management
in Nigeria, Vol. 28, No. 4.
International Labour Organization (ILO) (2007). Global Trends for Women
as/gender/news/getw07.pdf Accessed: 5th March 2009.
Shaheed F (1995). “Networking for change: the role of women’s groups in
initiating dialogue on women’s issues”, in M. Afkhami (ed). Faith and Freedom:
women’s human rights in the Muslim world. Londres, I. B: Taurus.
Ekejiuba FI (1991). “Women in the Context of Nigerian Rural
Development”, in M.O Ijere (ed.) op. cit.
Okonjo K (1991). “Rural Development in Nigeria: how do women count”, in
M.O Ijere (ed.) op. cit.
Adeyokunu TO (1981). “Women and Agriculture in Nigeria”. UNECA, Addis
Afigbo AE (1991). “Women as a Factor in Development”, in M.O Ijere (ed.)
Women in Nigerian Economy. Enugu: Acena Pub.
Stephen M (1992). “Poverty, Population and the Environment”. World
Development Report. Washington, D.C: The World Bank.
Palmer A, Almaz E (1991). Women, Development and Educational Reforms: an
Ethiopian perspective. U.S.A: Radcliff College.
Caldwell JC (1979). “Mass Education as the Major Determinant of the
Timing of the Onset of Sustained Fertility Decline”. Population Dynamics:
fertility and mortality in Africa. UNECA, Monrovia: UNECA.
Rathgeber, E. M. (2003). Women universities and university-educated
women: The current situation in Africa. In D. Teferra & P. G. Altbach
(Eds.), African higher education: An international reference handbook (pp.
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.