1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is a veritable tool that is profitable for the development
of an individual and the economy. Education contributes immensely to the
social, political and economic growth of a nation. With education, the
human resource base of an economy is built and that is why it is one of
the priorities of most government to finance the education sector of an
economy (Owolabi, 1987). Education is a great venture for any economy,
which is the more reason government, ensures that certain factors are
put in place to improve the quality of education in the country.
Primary education is the main thrust for other forms of education.
The academic performance of a student for other levels of education
(secondary/tertiary) is determined from his primary education (FRN,
2004). The objectives of the primary education include improving the
level of literacy, encouraging scientific and creative thinking among
students, citizenship education, character and moral development,
developing skills and equipping the child for further education. The
above objectives can only be achieved with the help of a competent
teacher. Quality education can be achieved with the assistance of a
quality teacher (Lassa, 1996). James (2003) describes the teacher as the
center-point wherewith educational development revolves around. It is
the backbone of education. Ukeje (2000) mentioned in one of his works
that the UPE programme of 1976 failed in Nigeria due to incompetent
teachers in Nigeria. The teaching profession requires well trained
personnel, intelligent and passionate people who will produce quality
students. A study that was carried out by UNICEF in line with the
Federal Ministry of Education proved that teachers’ worth the best input
in the educational system (UNICEF 2001).
Over the years, there have been cases of rise and fall in Nigeria’s
educational system and this is largely attributed to the performance of
teachers (Bamisaye, 2000). This is tied to the training received by
teachers, either sandwich or fulltime. Not until the 21st century,
teachers in Nigeria were always trained in Teacher Training Colleges.
Recently, Nigeria’s National Policy of Education in Section 9,
sub-section 61 stated its requirements for teachers which include WASC
being the lowest qualification for teachers and NCE being the entry
qualification for teachers. It is quite noticeable that most teachers in
Ogun state primary schools are NCE holders and that this study aims at
evaluating their performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The teacher factor has been a problem to the educational system of
Nigeria. Most teachers with NCE qualification in primary schools in Ogun
state seem not to employ professionalism in the discharge of their
Also, some NCE teachers have the problem of effective communication
while teaching. Most of them do not use the lingua franca-English
language in teaching primary school students in Ogun state. Due to this
poor background of teaching in the primary schools, these primary school
students on graduating from the primary school have difficulty
expressing themselves in simple English language.
Away from the problems associated with NCE teachers, is the problem
of poor remuneration of teachers with NCE. Meager salaries are paid to
teachers with NCE and this discourages them from discharging their
duties effectively, they are not in any way motivated; thus giving room
for laxity, lateness and nonchalant attitude in discharging their
These are some of the problems this study is meant to examine in other to proffer solutions to them.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to evaluate NCE sandwich teacher’s performance in Ogun state primary schools.
Other specific objectives include:
a) To examine the impact of NCE sandwich teachers on Ogun state students’ academic performance.
b) To examine the effectiveness of the teaching method used by NCE sandwich in Ogun state.
c) To determine the significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and the students’ output.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are generated to guide this study:
a) What is the impact of NCE sandwich teachers on Ogun state students’ academic performance?
b) How effective is the teaching method used by NCE sandwich in Ogun state?
c) Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and the students’ output?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no impact of NCE sandwich teachers on Ogun state students’ academic performance.
H1: There is an impact of NCE sandwich teachers on Ogun state students’ academic performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to educate, inform and enlighten the general
public and government on NCE sandwich teachers’ performance on primary
schools, particularly in Ogun state.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend
to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to
build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could
serve as a guide for other work or study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to the evaluation of the NCE sandwich teachers’ performance, a case study of Ogun state.
Limitations of study
- 1. Financial constraint-
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in
sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in
the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
- 2. Time constraint- The
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic
work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EVALUATION: The making of a judgment about the amount, number, or value of something; assessment.
NCE SANDWICH: The Nigerian Certificate in Education
(N.C.E.) is a special A-Level grade Course intended for Secondary school
leavers or their equivalent.
On the one hand, it is taken as an A-Level Course because it upgrades
the knowledge of its student to an A-Level standard in the particular
subject of his/her choice; while on the other hand it is referred to as
SPECIAL A-level because it also equips the students with the techniques
and methodologies of TEACHING. TEACHER: This is
someone who delivers an educational program, assesses student
participation in an educational program and/or administers or provides
consistent and substantial leadership to an educational program.
PERFORMANCE: The accomplishment of a given task
measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost,
and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment
of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all
liabilities under the contract.
PRIMARY SCHOOL: A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve, coming before secondary school and after preschool. It is the first stage of compulsory education in most parts of the world, and is normally available without charge, but may be offered in a fee-paying independent school.
UPE (UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION): Is a goal stated
in many national development plans and pursued with vigor by governments
of most developing countries. Primary Education is seen as the first
step in laying the foundation for future educational opportunities and
Owolabi, O. (1987). Politics and Cultural Content of Educational Planning. Aderibigbe Publishers, Ibadan.
FRN (2004). National policy on education. Abuja: NERDC.
Lassa, P. N. (1996). A foreword in teaching education: An imperative for national development (Ed.) Kaduna: NCCE.
James, N. A. (2003). Challenges and future of teacher education in
Nigeria (Ed.) Multi-disciplinary Journal of Research Development, 1(1),
Ukeje, B. O. (2000). Universal basic education in Nigeria: Logistics
and implementation strategies. A keynote Address presented on the
occasion of an International Conference on
Universal Basic Education held at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, from July 3 – 7.
UNICEF, (2001). Children and women’s right in Nigeria: A wake up call. Abuja: UNICEF Office
Bamisaye, E.A. 2000. New Sources of Funding the University System in Nigeria. Spectrum Book Ltd, Ibadan.