This research work was designed
to investigate the importance of continuous assessment in some selected
secondary school and also teacher’s competency in implementing continuous
assessment in Egor. To achieve the laid down objectives, the researcher carried
out the investigation by designing well structured questionnaire, for 50
respondents in the area of study. The data so far generated from the study was
analyzed using the simple percentage statistical analysis. The study revealed
that both teachers and students recognize the impact of continuous assessment,
continuous assessment have not only help to prevent examination malpractice,
continuous assessment help promote good study habit and reading culture among
students, help teachers given feedback and keep-assessment record of students
and help diagnose students area of strength and weakness in education. It was
also discovered that most teachers they mainly assess students cognitive
activities at the detriment of psychomotor and effective behaviour etc
recommendations were further made by the researcher based on the findings,
these include among others thing the need for government to proffer solution to
the problem of record keeping, all teachers should update their knowledge in
measurement and evaluation, make use of continuous assessment records for
decision making about each learners, teachers should assess all area of
learning outcomes and finally, to be positively disposed to continuous
Background of the study
Continuous assessment is one of the new
concepts introduced in the Nigeria educational system with the new national
policy on education in short it is an interval part of the new system of
education otherwise known as the 9-3-3-4 system. Assessment is an essential
element in the educational process. A teacher must make some measurements of
the extent to which the learning experiences of students have enabled them,
achieve the stated objectives of the course of study.
Ohunche on Odili (2001) defines assessment as
an involving the determination for the value and work of a thing implies making
decision. The changing needs and attitude of individual children call for a
continuous evaluation of such needs and trials in order to enable the children
understand themselves better. Their teachers to improve on their teaching
methods, the parents and guidance understood the children, so that educational
vocational and personal social decision can be realistically made on them.
Scholars have looked at the issues of the attitude of students towards
assessment in educational system and have seen that the success education will
ever offer is seriously tied to the facilities relevant to it. According to
Peretomode (2007) stock of educational facilities in public school system in
Nigeria is enormous even at the present state of their insufficient and
inadequacy. They represent substantial financial outlay to the tax payer.
Establishing new educational facilities is no longer that easy because of the
current state of economic depression and constantly raising costs. Edem (2008)
seeing the importance and position influence of school facilities to
educational achievement of students said. It is the duty of the ministry or the
board of education to make furniture’s, equipment, books and expendable
materials available to schools. Their inadequacy constitutes another source of
frustration and disillusion among teachers. African leaders earnestly desire
good education programmes for their people, but in many cases the resources are
so merger that little progress can be made.
According to Inyong Abia (2002) continuous
assessment are the pivot on which the wheel of teaching and learning process
rotates. As cited by Inyang Abia (2004) the use of continuous assessment is the
most significant aspect of influence for students effective performance.
According to Bayo (2005) the availability of continuous assessment in learning
process have the potency for motivating and focusing learners attention on the
lesson being presented.
According to Obi (2003), a good continuous
assessment can make the following contributions. Promote the development of
ready skills and encourage long term habits through ready, listening and etc
those learning habits from the key to continuous success in school and to the
personal encouragement of leisure this throughout line. Assessment is not
merely testing (Osokoya, 2006), it is a process through which the quality of an
individual work or performance is judged (Mwebaza, 2010). In relation to school
setting. Greaney (2001) defines assessment as any procedure or activity that is
designed to collect information about the knowledge, attitude, or skills of the
learner or group of learners. Thus, in the context of education, assessment can
be defined as a predetermined process through which the quality of a student’s
performance in the three domains of educational objectives (cognitive,
affective, and psychomotor) is judged. Assessment of students learning of
curriculum contents in the area of knowledge, skills, and values is a major
pre-occupation of many educational reforms. This is because results from such
assessment not only provide feedbacks regarding the educational progress of
students but remain the authentic yardstick for gaining the effectiveness of
the teacher, the quality of instruction and in part the functionality of any
curriculum reform. Continuous assessment as an assessment carried out in an
ongoing process (Mwebaza, 2010) is an objective judgment considered an
important part of structured assessment purposely designed and administered to
enable the teacher to evaluate some aspect of a students learning of a specific
A number of characterizations of continuous
assessment exist in the literature. According to Agawam cited in Mwebaza (2010)
continuous assessment not simply continuous testing. Continuous assessment does
not solely depend on formal tests. Continuous assessment is more than giving a
test; it involves every decision made by the teacher in class to improve students
achievement. Continuous assessment as only a part of the field of educational
evaluation is a method of evaluating the process and achievement of students in
educational institutions (Yoloye, 2006). This means that continuous assessment
could be used to predict future student’s performance in the final examinations
and the possible success of individuals at the work place or on a particular
job. Continuous assessment is a formative evaluation procedure concerned with
finding out in a systematic manner, all gains that a student’s has made in
terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills after a given set of learning
experience (Ogunniyi, 2004). A more comprehensive definition of continuous
assessment is given by Ezewu and Okoye (2007).
Statement of Problem
.Despite the high premium placed on qualitative
education, it is unfortunate to note that secondary school teachers find it
difficult in the implementation of the programme. Therefore, it is stated that:
.The validity of assessment records is often
incomprehensive due to difference in school academic standards, enrolments,
infrastructure, staffing, facilities and policies.
.Continuous assessment tests are not often goal
objective oriented, due to the limitations of constant validity and test
.There is an inadequacy in the availability of
standardized instruments used for collating data in continuous assessment tests
in secondary schools.
.There is a continuous decline in proper
documentation and storage of continuous assessment records and related
information in most secondary schools.
.Continuous assessment just like any other
government policy cannot be implemented effectively if there are underlying
Most teachers lack the skills on process as
well as the practice of keeping the records of children’s achievement as they
are scored and graded and according to the weightings given to each component
area that has been assessed.
Another problem most teachers face is that of
incompetence in developing valid assessment instrument for evaluation of
behavioural outcomes in the three domains. Most teachers seem to be confused in
the amount of material content that should be covered by each test.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the problems
encountered in the theory and practice of continuous assessment in selected
secondary schools programme and make recommendation on how these problems could
be overcome at the same time weighing the impact these problems of continuous
assessment in teaching in secondary schools.
Specifically, the objectives of the studies
include the following:
find out the extent of teachers compliance with the continuous assessment
determine the ways of assisting teachers in improving upon their skill in
continuous assessment practice in Economics thereby enhancing the optimum
performance of the students.
identify the factors that militates against Economic teachers compliance with the laid down guidelines for
Significance of the Study
The effective implementation of Continuous
Assessment (C.A) has beneficial effects to the learners, Teacher’s Parents or
guardian and the educational system general. This is due to the fact that
Continuous Assessment is more useful, practical, comprehensive and systematic
than the traditional. One-shot summative examination system (ALI and
Akabue:1989) in addition of being guidance oriented.
This research work will be of immense benefit
to all stakeholders in the education industry such as:
To student who are the end benefactors of the
programme of continuous assessment.
It will help the secondary school teacher to
implement the continuous assessment programme effectively.
Government education planning agencies for
validation of their training programme.
It encourages good study habits among student.
Students will see the need to work continuously at their studies rather than
engaging in what may be termed “massed” learning towards the end of the year.
To the educational system, continuous
assessment provides objective data on whether the standard of education is
falling or rising. Parents/guardians are also afforded of opportunity of being
informed of the holistic assessment of their children performance.
Scope of the Study
The study is united to the practices and
problems encountered by economics teachers in the implementation of continuous
assessment in senior secondary school.
This study sought to answer the following
achieve the aim of this research study a set of research questions were
formulated thus stated below:
other aspect of educational objectives does continuous assessment measure apart
from the cognitive domain?
are the teachers’ perceptions on continuous assessment as a system of
evaluation in secondary school?
are the remedies to the problems of implementing continuous assessment and what
impact will it make on the learning process of the student in the secondary
what extent do teachers in secondary school comply with the continuous
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was designed to cover five schools
in Ado-ekitilocal government Area in Ado-ekiti
Research samples were drawn from pupils,
teachers and principals.
Lack of time hindered the researcher in
extending the research to cover all the schools in the federal capital
territory. As a result few schools in the Ado-ekiti were randomly selected.
Financial constraint was another problem since
the cost of moving from one place to another was not easy as the researcher was
not mobile to go round the schools.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined as used in the
study in order to avoid misinterpretation by different individuals
Continuous Assessment: This is a method of
ascertaining what a pupils gains from school in terms of knowledge, industry
and character development, taking into account all his/her performance in test
assessment, project and other educational activities during a given period
which an education should determine.
Implentation: The act or process of putting
into efect some operations plans, policies or idea is known as implementation.
Competence: This has to do with effiiciency,
the ability to be skillful. Knowledgeable and to be effective in performing
gien tasks. It implies the possession of specialized skills active performance
in specialized area like teaching field.
Assignment: An ability which may be oral or
practical given to learners by the teachers to reinforce or access the rate of
Cognitive Domain: Is an aspect of learning
which deals with the learners intellect or intellectual development. A
behavioural objective of remembering which had been learned.
Psychomotor Domain: The psuchomotor domain dels
with the manipulative skills and body movement.
Affective Domain: It has to do with values and
beliefs attitudes and appreciation interested social relation, emotional
adjustment and life style.
6-3-3-4: The new system of education in Nigeria
has spent out by the 1981 national policy on education briken down as:
6 – Years primary education
3 – Years junior secondary education
3 – Years senior secondary education
4 – Years tertiary or post secondary education
Education: A process which affect a change in
an individual’s behaviour leading to functionalism to self and the society at
Evaluation: An exercise carried out at the end
of teaching and learning process to ascertain the extent to which laid down or
specified educational objectives have been attained.
Test: An activity or exercise administered to a
learner to measure skill ability knowledge or ideas (potentials).