FEMALE EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: THE KEY TO DEVELOPMENT
OF THE STUDY
Education is a tool for the sustainable development
of any economy (Oyitso & Olomukoro, 2012). In the last two decades, there
have been agitations that women should be involved in ensuring the sustainable
development of a country. Even as a research conducted shows that about
two-third of women are illiterates and just about the same figure goes for
females who are out of school. However, for women (females) to contribute
towards achieving sustainable development, they must be given quality
Fortunately, females make up a greater percentage of
Nigeria’s population, therefore in other for them to be involved in the
development of the country, they need to be literate (UNESCO, 2002). This
brings us to the reality that half of the population of a country (females) is
discriminated or illiterates, sustainable development will be hampered.
Educating females of a country is one of the ways of investing into the future
of that country, tied to a saying that ‘if you train a woman, you have trained
the nation’. Females will actively participate both nationally and
internationally in the social, political, and economic development of the
country if certain barriers are taken care of (Okojie, 2011). Based on the
traditional beliefs of Nigerians, before now females were known to always be in
the kitchen, thus discriminating them from participating in other spheres of
the economy. Not minding this limitation, women still struggled participating
in the economic sphere of the country, engaging more in agricultural activities
than the men (Ponte, 2006). This discrimination meted on the female folk has
made them poor thereby depriving them of education, training and health
services. A very obvious discrimination against women is the area of education
and it is because they do not have access to education. It has been proven that
women can achieve socio-economic development of the nation through sound
education and empowerment (Adeniran, 2009). It is against this background that
in recent times efforts have been made to improve female education in Nigeria.
Buttress to say are campaigns carried out by non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) south and north parts of Nigeria to promote female education; and to
encourage state governments in the north to fund female education. One of the
positive effects of this campaign is the establishment of girls’ schools across
Despite all these meaningful measures, female
education still lacks behind compared to males’ education. A lot of women have
not been well empowered to contribute to national development, they are still
traumatized and that is why out of 1.2 billion around the globe living in
abject poverty, about 70% are women (Onwubiko, 2012). Poverty for these women
does not only mean their basic needs are not met but that their voices are not
heard, opportunities denied, and their rights are trampled upon.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) took a step
further in one of its goals to reiterate how essential female education is
through empowering women. The National Policy on women was adopted in 2000 in
Nigeria in other to enhance the involvement of females in the social and
political arena of the country, to achieve national development (Olomukoro,
However, not minding that the Nigerian culture plays
a part in discouraging female education, the presence of civilization (formal
education) is helping to close the vacuum created, in other to join the
workforce of the country.
This study on female education in Nigeria: the key
to development is coming on the hills of stressing how important female
education is to the sustainable development of Nigeria.
OF THE PROBLEM
Over twenty decades now, the issue of female
education has always been a topical issue both in the national and
international scene. There are certain barriers to this effect, and they
Poverty and economic issues: with the high level of
poverty in Nigeria, female children are usually sent to hawk in other to
provide the basic needs of the family.
Cultural and religious biases: Many Nigerian parents
are of the notion that it is waste of resources to enroll females in schools
and so the males should be enrolled. Also, some Islamic parents misinterpret
the tenet of lslam as regards female education.
Early Marriage and Teenage Pregnancy: Due to the
fact that many parents belief education is not for their female children, they
give them away in early marriage.
In addition, teenage pregnancy amongst females makes
them drop out from school.
These are some of the problems associated with
female education in Nigeria.
OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is Female Education
in Nigeria: the Key to Development.
Other specific objectives include:
the relationship between female education and Nigeria’s GDP.
the challenges of female education in Nigeria.
how well the media has contributed in promoting female education in Nigeria.
current percentage rate at which women have access to education in Nigeria.
The following research questions are generated to
guide this study:
What is the
relationship between female education and Nigeria’s GDP?
What are the
challenges of female education in Nigeria?
How well has
the media contributed in promoting female education in Nigeria?
What is the current
percentage rate at which women have access to education in Nigeria?
H0: There is no significant relationship between
female education and Nigeria’s GDP.
H1: There is a significant relationship between
female education and Nigeria’s GDP.
OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to inform, educate, sensitize
and enlighten the general public, government and policy makers on the
importance of female education towards achieving national development.
It is meant to educate parents on the importance of
sending their female children to school.
The study aims at reminding the government that they
have a part to play in ensuring female education in Nigeria. In fact, it should
be enacted as a law that females should be given compulsory education in
This study will be of immense benefit to other
researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by
non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to
knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.
OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to female education in
Nigeria; the key to development.
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund
tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant
materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection
(internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will
simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently
will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
FEMALE EDUCATION: This refers to every form of
education that aims at improving the knowledge, and skill of women and girls.
It includes general education at schools and colleges, vocational and technical
education, professional education, health education, etc. Female education
encompasses both literary and non-literary education.
DEVELOPMENT: This is the process in which someone or
something grows or changes and becomes more advanced.
UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
ORGANISATION (UNESCO): Is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based
in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by
promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and
cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule
of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the
United Nations Charter.
MILLENUIM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs): Is a UN
initiative. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight
international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established
following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the
adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
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