1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Job satisfaction to a very large extent determines the success of any
organization. Thus, it is very important to understand the rudiments of
job satisfaction as it is very fundamental for the welfare of
employees, including their job performance. An employee who has passion
for his work and discharges his duties effectively is expected to be
directly or indirectly satisfied with his job. Due to this, the level at
which an employee is satisfied with his job determines if he would
continue or resign.
The benefits of education cannot be over emphasized, as it is both
beneficial to an individual and the nation at large. In other to achieve
this, the quality of education must be greatly considered. Teachers are
the determinants of quality education; of cause no one can give what he
or she doesn’t have. A teacher’s role is beyond just teaching, but also
instills good morals into students in order to make them good citizens
that will contribute meaningfully to the development of a country
(Imaobong, 2004). Thus, this makes the duties of a teacher cumbersome,
as it is not an easy task to perform. However, in other for the teachers
to carry out their duties effectively, they need to be motivated. Ingwu
and Ekefre (2006), Pilot (2007), Aldermon (2004) and Ngada (2003)
reported that high quality of education and improved standard of
education can be achieved when teachers are properly motivated.
Academic staff of universities contributes greatly to the work force
of a country. They are academies that have acquired much education and
are expected to give back to the society; by imparting acquired
knowledge to the coming generation. Due to how universally relevant and
beneficial the academic staff are, the nature of their jobs make them
mobile (Akpotu & Nwadiani, 2003). This is why in the last five years
South Africa, it was recorded that most of their experts in different
academic disciplines left for greener pastures outside the country
(Stilwell, 2003). Anecdotes, in its report have it that in the 1990s,
about 30% of professionals migrated towards Europe and North America
(ILO, 1996). Similarly, it was estimated that in year 2000 about 178
million people or 3% of world population were living outside their
country, as against 100 million or 1.8% of the world’s population in
1995 (Stilwell, 2003).
University as known is a higher level of education after the primary
and secondary schools. It is the level of education that equips the
individuals of a country with knowledge, skills and right morals to take
up positions in the country that will aid all-round development. It’s
relevance in tackling societal ills in Nigeria has led to promotion of
education (Akpotu & Nwadiani 2003).
However, a research reported that one of the factors that affect the
macro environment of a nation is the loss of its work force and this
greatly due to the fact that most employees quit due to the problem of
job satisfaction. Series of studies have pointed factors that affect job
satisfaction to include supervision, income, attitude, promotion,
interpersonal relationships, nature of social insurance, conditions of
service, job design and equal treatment by management (Onu et al., 2005;
Sur et al., 2004; Tutuncu and Kozak, 2006; Knowles, 1978, Salmond,
2006; Wiedmar, 1998; DeVaney and Chen, 2003; Greenberg, 1986).
Job satisfaction portrays the positive attitude employees put up
while discharging their duties. Attitude here depicts the feelings of an
employee towards the happenings in his working environment. Job
satisfaction is the net result of how well employees perceive and accept
those things they term important while discharging their duties
Over the years in Nigeria, the hopes of academic staff of
universities have been shattered; characterized with increase of work
stress leading to decrease of morale and job satisfaction. It has been
observed that academic staff job satisfaction depicts staff’s
performance and students’ academic performance (Noordin, 2009 and Muindi
2011). Attitudes of academic staff of universities are reflected
through job satisfaction. An attitude that is worthy of note that
affects job satisfaction is when decisions are taken in the university
environment without involving the academic staff, this attitude tends to
cut them off and can create the wrong impression in them that they will
not contribute towards achieving such decisions. The truth remains that
job dissatisfaction has negative impact on the university to include
incessant strikes, low productivity, intentional absenteeism, apathy,
brain drain, tardiness, etc.
However, this study is coming on the hills of investigating the
factors related to job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian
universities because they have a part to play in the country’s
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, lack of job satisfaction has been prevalent in the
Nigerian university system. From time to time, Nigeria keeps losing its
university academic staff for universities outside the country; possibly
the highest bidders and this affects Nigerian universities. Some greedy
lecturers among them still hold two appointments, one in Nigeria,
another outside the country- shuttling between two countries. A closer
examination of their activities prove that Nigerian universities with
such lecturers are really suffering (feeling the heat); most especially
the students. A good example is a final year student who has a lecturer
that shuttles between Nigeria and another country, this will create a
huge gap between the student and the lecturer, as well as a delay on the
part of the student.
There are other working conditions that affect job satisfaction,
there include lack of promotion, poor remuneration, lack of work
insurance, etc. the most obvious is poor remuneration of academic staff
of Nigerian universities. Academic staff of Nigerian universities keeps
embarking on strikes; the 2009 Agreement of the Academic Staff Union of
Universities (ASUU) with the government of Nigeria has been an age long
These are a few of the problems this study seeks to find solutions to.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to investigate factors related
to job satisfaction of Academic staff in Nigerian universities.
Other specific objectives include:
- To examine the significant relationship between job satisfaction of
academic staff of universities and Nigeria’s human capital development.
- To investigate if there is a body saddled with the responsibility of
job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities.
- To examine the relationship between job satisfaction of academic
staff of universities and performance of Nigerian university students.
- To recommend strategies for the improvement of academics’ job satisfaction.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are generated to guide this study:
- What are the factors of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities?
- What is the significant relationship between job satisfaction of
academic staff of universities and Nigeria’s human capital development?
- Is there a body saddled with the responsibility of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities?
- What is the relationship between job satisfaction of academic staff
of universities and performance of Nigerian university students?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no body saddled with the responsibility of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities.
H1: There is a body saddled with the responsibility of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study serves as a reminder to the government and university
administrators that for quality education to be achieved, job
satisfaction of academic staff of universities should be treated with
urgency. Reason being that job satisfaction either makes or mars the
performance of both staff and students.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend
to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to
build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could
serve as a guide for other work or study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to the factors related to job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities.
Limitations of study
- 1. Financial constraint-
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in
sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in
the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
- 2. Time constraint- The
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic
work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
FACTOR: A circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result.
JOB SATISFACTION: Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction
has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply how
content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or
not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as
nature of work or supervision.Others believe it is not as simplistic as
this definition suggests and instead that multidimensional psychological
responses to one's job are involved. Researchers have also noted that
job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure
feelings about the job (affective job satisfaction) or cognitions about
the job (cognitive job satisfaction).
ACADEMIC STAFF: A member of the faculty of a college or university usually having qualified status without rank or tenure.
Imaobong, U. N. (2004). Teacher preparation for Nigerian basic education. Journal of Research in Education 1(1), 1-6.
Onu MO, Madukwe MC, Agwu AE (2005). Factors affecting Job