This study examined the adjustment
problems of the physically handicapped children in integrated schools
among students in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local
Government Area of Lagos State. Related and relevant literature was
reviewed under relevant sub-headings in the study. The descriptive
research survey was applied in the assessment of respondents’ opinions
with the use of the questionnaires and the sampling technique.
A total of one hundred and twenty (120)
respondents were selected to represent the population of this study. The
sample comprised (60 males and 60 females).
Four null hypotheses were formulated and
tested in this study using the independent t-test statistical tool at
0.05 level of significance.
At the end of the exercise, the following findings were obtained thus:
- There is a significant difference between the social interaction of
physically challenged children and normal children in integrated
- That significant difference exists between the self-concept of handicapped children and the normal ones in integrated schools.
- There is a significant difference in the academic performance of students who are handicapped and those who are not.
- There is a significant difference between the vocational choice of
the physically challenged children and that of the normal children in
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Delimitation/Scope of the Study 10
1.8 Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 14
2.0 Introduction 14
2.1 Social Interaction and Adolescent Social Adjustment 14
2.2 A Review of Studies on Problems Related to Self-Concept and
the Adolescent Adjustment to School 17
2.3 Institutionalization, Mainstreaming or Inclusion: Challenges for
Special Education in Nigeria 19
2.4 Concept of Integration and Inclusive Education 24
2.5 Employment Opportunities for the Visually Impaired in Nigeria 25
2.6 Disparity Between Policy and Practice 32
2.7 Students’ Academic Performance 37
2.8 Vocational Opportunity/Choice of Students 40
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 43
3.0 Introduction 43
3.1 Research Design 43
3.2 Population of the Study 43
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 44
3.4 Instrumentation 45
3.5 Validity of Instruments 47
3.6 Reliability of the Instruments 47
3.7 Method of Data Collection 47
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 48
CHAPTER FOUR: Analyses of Data and Presentation of Results 49
1.1 Introduction 49
1.2 Descriptive analyses of teachers’ bio-data according to sex, age,
religion, class taught, qualification and years of service of teachers 49
1.3 Descriptive analyses of students’ bio-data according to sex, age,
class and religion 52
1.4 Hypotheses Testing 54
4.5 Summary of Findings 59
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 60
5.0 Introduction 60
5.1 Discussion of the Findings 60
5.2 Summary of the Study 66
5.3 Conclusion 67
1.4 Recommendations 68
1.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a key to the development of
an individual’s potential, nation’s prospects and the world as a whole.
Education has become a fundamental tool for developing economics of the
nations of the world. It is on this premise that the United Nations
(UN) mandated that education should be part of the privileges and rights
the citizenry or any member of the society should enjoy. The national
policy on education of Nigeria also supports the view that all children
and adults in the country should enjoy the basic education no matter
their state or status.
The National Policy on Education,
Section 3 stated five main national goals of Nigeria that were endorsed
as necessary foundation for the development. The goals are
- A free and democratic society.
- A just and egalitarian society.
- A united, strong and self-reliant nation.
- A great and dynamic economy.
- A land full of bright opportunities for all citizens.
Also in Section 4(c), the Nigeria
philosophy of education states that every Nigerian child shall have a
right to equal education opportunities, irrespective of any creed or
unargued disabilities, each according to his or her ability (NPE, 2004).
To date, in an attempt to ensure an
equal educational opportunities for all, there is still one un-served
population that unlike some groups, is hard to identify, place and
programme in public schools. They are the handicapped children.
Handicapped children are referred to as special children or exceptional
children and this points to the importance of the different kind of care
they need (Oyebola, 1997). There has been a conscious move towards the
integration of handicapped children into regular school programmes, not
only in Nigeria but in most countries of the world. During the world
congress of the council for exceptional children (CEC) held in Stilling,
Scotland a lot of emphasis was placed on mainstreaming.
In the National Policy on Education
(2004) it was stated that government had decided that integration is the
most realistic form of special education for the handicapped since they
are eventually expected to live in the society.
In the past, no one thought of giving
the handicapped the attention they are receiving in recent times. This
is evident in the celebration of the international day of the disabled
persons on the 3rd of December every year by the United
Nations Organization. The UNO tried to create more awareness about the
disabled by declaring 1991 the international year of the disabled
persons and the adoption of what it called the decade of disabled
persons (1993 – 2002).
The attention being given to the
handicapped is reflection of the attempt by every individual, federal,
state government and even the international bodies to make life
meaningful to everyone irrespective of his/her handicapping condition.
In order to achieve this the United Nations in its world programme of
action, recommends that children with special educational needs should
be integrated as much as possible into ordinary schools.
Integration or mainstreaming or open
education is therefore the process of educating all learners
irrespective of their handicapping conditions along with their normal
The handicapped children who from part
of the country’s population needs to interact socially in all spheres of
life as others do. The fact therefore remains that the handicapped
cannot live wholly on their own without having to interact with their
normal peers. This is why advocates of integration claim that
integration is very necessary in acquainting the handicapped with their
normal peers in terms of social interaction, personality development and
positive self condept.
Integration of the handicapped and the
normal children in regular schools does not necessarily guarantee
positivism in terms of self concept and social interaction unless
conscious efforts are made to enhance students interaction, the
handicapped may be rejected by the normal students and teachers.
To survive and succeed in a typical
classroom situation, pupil must have relatively good rapport with
classmates and teachers. It has been adequately found by researchers
Adeniyi (2000), Eweniyi and Adenuga (1999), Mba (1995) and Oladiti
(1986), that a number of acceptable social behaviour correlate, highly
with academic achievement. For example independence, attention,
persistence on task, self concept, compliance with teacher’s request and
ability to follow instruction are pre-requisite to school success. The
fact that there is a difference in students, there is the possibility of
problems for the handicapped in integrated schools.
It is against this background that this
study seeks to discover their social adjustment problems in integrated
schools and offer useful suggestions.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The handicapped are also referred to as
the special and children who need special education. Special education
does not mean segregation or separation. Integration should be
encouraged but efforts should be made to meet their special needs.
These groups of children who are also
addressed as less privileged ones are faced with problems of learning in
schools due to physical structures, instructional materials and
understanding by the teachers. Many researchers have worked on
handicapped especially in areas of identification, placement, adjustment
in society but very little research work has been on integration and
problem of integration.
In Nigeria, myriad of people including
parents, teachers and even the so called highly placed people believe
that the handicapped interpersonal relationship with normal individual
is tantamount to waste of time and energy because of their handicapping
condition and difficult in academic achievement. Even the handicapped
themselves feel reluctant to attend social functions in schools because
they feel that normal children will discriminate against them. With this
on their minds when they come to school, they try to live in isolation
and at the end, they all lose what each group can offer to the other
advancement. This study therefore attempt to analyse the adjustment
problems of pupils with disability in Lagos State and offers necessary
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study seeks to do the following:
- To identify the social adjustment problems encountered by the handicapped in mainstreamed/integrated schools.
- To bring into focus the attitude of the normal students towards the handicapped in integrated schools.
- After identifying the problems encountered by these children through
this investigation, the research work seeks to counsel the subject
based on this problems and study if there will be any significant
difference, suggest ways by which those concerned with the
administration of the integrated schools could influence the normal
peers in developing positive attitudes towards the handicapped.
- To bring into focus the need by the government to embark on public
enlightenment programmes to educate the populace on the need to accept
the handicapped as worthy members of the schools and the larger society
in which they find themselves.
- Is there any significant difference between the social interaction
level of the physically handicapped children and normal children in
- Is there any significant difference between self concept of the
physically handicapped children and that of the normal school children?
- Is there any significant difference between the academic performance
of handicapped children and the normal children in integrated schools?
- Is there any significant difference in vocational choice between the physically handicapped and the normal children?
- There is no significant difference between the social interaction
level of the physically handicapped children and normal children in
- There is no significant difference between self concept of the physically handicapped children and normal school children.
- There is no significant difference between the academic performance
of handicapped children and the normal children in integrated schools.
- There is no significant difference in vocational choice between the physically handicapped and the normal children.
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will enlighten teachers both
general and specialists, parents of both groups, the children themselves
and the general public on the need to solve the problem of social
interaction among the handicapped and the normal children so as to give
both groups a sense of togetherness. It will suggest ways of educating
the handicapped through active social interaction.
Education cannot be meaningful until all
children, their handicapped condition not withstanding co-operate and
do things together and actively interact socially.
To be socially matured, the handicapped would require a pre-requisite body of information about social customs and habits.
It is the aim of the study to identify
and highlight the psychological problems faced by the handicapped by
investigating into their social interaction and adjustment, personality
development, academic performance and vocational opportunities. This is
to make not only educational but also the general public aware of the
adjustment problems encountered by this category of children in their
midst, Biller (1978) states that:
“The extent to which the child with
handicapping condition becomes a successful participating member of the
real world is in direct proportion to the degree to which he is accepted
by his family, his school, his community so that he is capable of
accepting himself as a worthy person”.
The study will assist in remediating the
psychological doubt and social problems by warding off the child’s
mistrust, shame, doubt, guilt, inferiority, Identity, confusion,
isolation, stagnation and despair.
The study will identify and highlight
the adjustment problems of the physically handicapped learners and get
them integrated into normal society to be able to interact with the
normal children, encourage their developing attitude towards their
social behaviour, personality and achievement.
1.7 Delimitation/Scope of the Study
The handicapped refers to the problems
and difficulties a person encounter because a physical disability or
behavioural characteristics marks him or her as different from other
individuals. Therefore, handicapped is an umbrella word that encompasses
the physically handicapped, the visually impaired (blind), the learning
impaired (deaf) the learning disabled/slow learners, the mentally
retarded, behaviour disorder/emotionally disturbed and the exceptional
children (gifted and talented).
Since the handicapped is a broad word
including the above mentioned persons, the researcher was not be able to
cover all the area mentioned above, putting into consideration the time
at the disposal of the researcher to accomplish the research work.
For the purpose of this study, the research was restricted to the physically handicapped only.
The aspect of the adjustment problems covered:
- Social interaction
- Self concept
- Academic performance
- Vocational opportunity
- Integration: Is the process of educating all
students irrespective of their handicapping condition along with their
no handicapped peers. In this study, integration means mixing normal and
handicap pupils in the same school.
- Adjustment: Denga (1986) Harmony congruence or a
goodness of fit between an individual and standards against which an
individual is adjusted. Adjustment in this study refers to the ability
of an handicap to cope with any situation.
- Adjustment Disorder: A mental disorder that occurs
as a maladaptive reaction to an episode of psychological, social or
physical stress. In this study, adjustment disorder means inability of
an individual to cope with psychological reactions and/or social
physical stress in an environment.
- Handicap: The problems and difficulties a person
encounters because of physical disability or behavioural characteristic
makes him or her different from others.
- Disability: Is a physical problem that limits a person ability to perform certain tasks that most other people can perform.
- Hearing impairment: Are those in whom the sense of hearing is non functional for the ordinary purpose of life.
- Visually impaired (Blind): Are those who cannot read and write print after all optical corrective measures have been taken.
- The learning disabled: Is one who exhibits one or
more deficits in the essential learning process of perception,
conceptualization, language memory, attention and impulse control
- Personality: Is the total aggregate of
configuration of an individual’s unique characteristics and modes or
behaviour which include his internal mediating state. In this study,
personality means total pattern of an individual ways of life.
- Special Education: The education of children and adults who have learning difficulties because of different sort of handicaps.
1.8 Definition of Terms