1.1 Background to the Study
Asikhia, (2010) in Contemporary Business
Education emphasized on the differential scholastic achievement of
students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and
research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so
because of the great importance that education has on the national
development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus
of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. Parents
and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on
education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain
of students’ low performance at both internal and external examination.
The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination results
(SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified
the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school
students’ performance in different school subjects.
(2002) in his book opined that managing any institution of learning
involves planning, organising, coordinating, motivating, monitoring,
evaluating, etc. The teaching and learning activities to ensure the
attainment of educational goals and objectives. In other words, teaching
and learning are the central focus of school management. It is however
through examination that pupils' learning is ascertained. This is why
teaching is fundamentally considered incomplete without some form of
evaluation. Examinations are therefore part and parcel of school
management functions. Amoor, (2008) stated that secretarial
Education is a vocational programme that is offered in Secondary
schools, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and Universities primarily
to educate and train students to become secretarial teachers and
administrators with the appropriate skills and competencies to take up a
career in teaching, office occupation and business.
Afe, (2001) opined that the issue of
academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern
to all and sundry. Teachers have shown an important influence on
students’ academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in
educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for
translating policy into action and principles based on practice during
interaction with the students. Consequent upon the observed
deterioration in the academic achievement, attitude and values of
secondary school students in public secondary schools, one wonders if
the high failure rates of the students is not a reflection of the
instructional quality in the schools.
There are several factors affecting
student academic performance in subject like Business study at the
junior secondary school level in school. These are socio-economic
status, motivation, intellectual ability, stress, and social factors.
The relationship between socio-economic status and academic performance
is a saturated research area. Studies have proven that socio-economic
status is highly correlated with academic performance, at all levels and
in all courses. Some research however suggests that socio-economic
status is a determinant of college attendance rather than academic
performance. In a more common sense assessment, self-supporting students
are likely to miss classes due to work and the pressure of putting food
on the table and the payment of tuition fees.
The fact remains however that classroom
attendance is necessary for a better understanding of their knowledge
and its application. In some schools class attendance is compulsory and
has a bearing on the grades of the students. Given the above-mentioned
assumptions, the self-supporting student therefore gets lower grades
than his classmates who belong to the higher socio-economic status.
In the context of academic
achievement of science and technology students is affected by
socio-economic status, motivation, intellectual ability, stress and
social factors. In addition to the abovementioned factors an interesting
area in the research of science and technology students academic
achievement may focus on emotional quotient and its effect on academic
achievement. Another realm of research in science and technology
students academic achievement is to look into emotional intelligence and
its effect on the academic achievement of students in school.
Okpale, (2001) revealed how students’
academic performances in school subject is of interest to researchers,
educationist and parents alike. Correlates of academic achievement of
individual students in many disciplines have been identified through
school factor and students attitude towards academic performance in
various discipline. Determinants of students' performance have been the
subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy
makers. In the course of writing this study, the researcher intend to
investigates Students poor performance in typewriting examination in
Typewriting is a skill subject that
requires hundred percent performance of a would be typist. A typewriting
student with the ambition of working in an office as a secretary must
be knowledgeable in typewriting, if she would want to work to the
satisfaction of her employer and receive the remunerations accorded
efficient typist. The ability to type very well depends on how serious a
student is, right from his/her days in the school. The student must
have great interest in the subject knowing fully well that to earn a
living, as far as secretarial work in the office is concerned, depends
on her ability to perform creditably. Some students gain the knowledge-
of typewriting in secondary schools level before continuing in Tertiary
Institutions. This is because of the new system of education (6-3-3-4)
introduced as a result of the inadequacy of the old system (6-5-2-3).
The 6-3-3-4, system means Six years of Primary Education, Three years of
Junior Secondary School, Three years of Senior Secondary School, and
Four years of Post-Secondary Education or Tertiary Institution.
The new system of education emphasized
typewriting at the Secondary School level more than before. This is
because typewriting at that level among other subjects can help to
diversify, opportunities and roles open to students, minimize the rate
of drop-outs due to narrow programme offerings in the old system;
develop skills and ability to make sound reasoning, equip him to live
effectively in our modern age of science and technology, and reduce the
rate of unemployment at that level of education, since students would be
able to work in offices/industries or run their own business. It is
on this basis that the researcher intend to carry out a research
study on the causes of high rate of failure of students in Typewriting
Examination Tertiary Institutions with regard to Secretarial Department
of F.C.E. (T) Akoka and LACOED, Ijankin, Lagos.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
it has been observed that the
attitude of most parents to Typewriting "also influences to a great
extent the impact on their children to offer the course; likewise
Typewriting is seen as a course for the less privileged ones in the
society. The problems of study was based on the fast decaying school
facilities and like lack of infrastructures like buildings, chairs,
tables, and so on. It has been observed that there is only display of
such materials by various schools by the officials of the Ministry of
Education. The effect of this neglect mismanagement, poor maintenance
and inadequate supply of these instructional materials has created the
1) Students tend to learn slowly in class.
2) What is learnt is not easily recalled.
3) Poor academic performance of students in internal and external examinations.
Inability of student to practicalize
what is learnt especially things having to do with technical or
vocational skills Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to
their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to
school, unsavory comments about student’s performance that could damage
their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect students’
academic performance. The question therefore is what is the cause of
this fallen standard and poor academic performance of students? Is the
fault entirely that of teachers or students or both of them? Is it that
students of today are non-achievers because they have low intelligent
quotient and a good neutral mechanism to be able to act purposefully,
think rationally and deal effectively with academic tasks? Or is it
because teachers are no longer putting in much commitment as before? Or
is it in teachers’ method of teaching and interaction with pupils? Or is
the poor performance of students caused by parents’ neglect, separation
and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out students
and teachers’ perception of the causes of poor academic performance
among secondary school students in Nigeria
Aremu (2003) stated that poor
academic performance is adjudged by the examinee/testee and some other
significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic
performance has been observed in school subjects especially mathematics
and English language among secondary school students. Aremu (2000)
stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students
and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms
of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics. The
problem of the study therefore, is to identify Students poor
performance in typewriting examination in tertiary institution, with
reference to Federal College Of Education Technical, Akoka-Yaba
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify
Students poor performance in typewriting examination in tertiary
institution, with reference to Federal College Of Education Technical,
Akoka-Yaba Lagos State).
Specifically the study aims at finding out:
1 To determine whether
admission of Students without the required qualification affect students
performance in Type- writing.
2 To determine whether students' Attitudes' contribute to their poor performance in Type-Writing.
3 To know if inadequate Learning Facilities contribute to students poor Performance in Type-Writing?
4 To know if Lecturers teaching styles influence student's performance in Type-Writing.
5 To determine if
over-confidence in students with pre-knowledge of Type- writing affect
their performance in Type- writing.
6 To know whether lack of talent contribute to Students' Performance in Type- writing.
1.4 Research Questions
The major research question were derived from students poor performance in typewriting examination in tertiary institution.
Other research questions includes:
1 Does Admission of Students without the required qualification affect students performance in Type- writing?
2 Does Students' Attitudes' contribute to their poor performance in Type-Writing?
3 Does Inadequate Learning Facilities contribute to their Poor Performance in Type-Writing?
4 Does Lecturers Imparting of Adequate Knowledge of the subject affect student's performance?
5 Does Over-confidence in students with pre-knowledge of Type- writing affect their performance in Type- writing?
6 Does lack of talent contribute to Students' Performance in Type- writing?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The null hypotheses based on the purpose of the study will be postulated and tested during the investigation:
Ho1: Admission of Students without the required qualification will not affect students performance in Type- writing.
Ho2: Students' Attitudes' do not contribute to their poor performance in Type-Writing.
Ho3: Inadequate Learning Facilities will not contribute to their Poor Performance in Type-Writing.
Ho4:Over-confidence in students with pre-knowledge of Type- writing does not affect their performance in Type- writing.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This will reveal the major causes of
failure in Type-Writing with a view to suggesting ways of improvement
which the researcher hope will be useful to the students, lecturers, the
department, college and the nation as a whole.
This study will be of benefit to the
parents teachers association in public schools, teachers and private
school teachers, school administrators, ministries of education and
other affiliated government agencies.
The study is also expected to be of
benefit to the government as well as school board. It will be beneficial
most importantly to the secretariats studies.
The study will help various school
administrators to understand the benefit of encouraging students’
attitudes towards their academic performance. It will enable school
administrators to know the best methods to adopt in order to maintain
positive attitudes of students that would increase the students academic
performance and school effectiveness. It will also enhance school
administrators to understand their position on their job towards
students’ academic performances.
The ministry of education will also be
of benefit from this study through proper planning and implementation
school facilities that will encourage students’ attitudes towards their
academic performance. The ministries will help encourage students
attitudes and good interrelationship between school administrators and
This study will be of great benefits
to the parents as this will enable parents to know how to teach their
children to cultivate good attitudes in their studies.
The government agencies will also be of
great benefit to this study through provision of school facilities,
conducive academic environment and improve standard of education. The
need to strengthen efficient supervisory control on students’ attitudes.
Other beneficiaries include scholars of
students attitudes and academic performances who will gain more
knowledge about other area of interest which requires further
Lastly, it will be useful to future researcher in the related line of study.
1.7 Scope of the study
The research work is limited in scope to
students poor performance in typewriting examination in tertiary
institution within Lagos state with reference to Federal College Of Education Technical, Akoka-Yaba Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This research work is limited to some selected tertiary institutions in Lagos (Federal College Of Education Technical, Akoka-Yaba Lagos State). This is due
to the problems of finance, time, transportation and reliability of the
questionnaire. The limitation of this study is as a result of time
constraint and distance to be covered during the course of this study.
Conclusively some students attributed
their failure to continue in this course to their parents disapproval of
it. It is not possible for the researcher to get in touch with the
parents to those students to know their opinion about the course of
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
These words in order for the readers of this work to understand the defined below:-
Academic Performance -
This is the level of academic education attainable by an individual at a
particular point in time as depicted by the subjects’ performance.
Teaching – This is a
process of imparting knowledge or the transfer of knowledge from
somebody who knows (the teacher) to an individual who does not know (the
Attitude – This refers
to an organization of motivational perceptional and cognitive process
with respect to some aspects of the individual’s world. The attitude one
has on something determines to a great extent, how he/she would be
involved in that thing. Attitude affects all we do in human life.
Education- it is the
aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops
abilities, skills and other forces of behavior of positive (and
sometimes of negative) value in the society in which he lives.
Junior Secondary School (J.S.S):-
This refers to the exploratory level. This level is also pre-vocational
level, where students are taught integrated subjects like Integrated
Sciences, Business Studies and Arts and Crafts. In Business Studies,
subjects like Office Practice, Shorthand, Typewriting, Commerce and
Book-Keeping are also being integrated in the umbrella of Business
This level lasts for three years and is
called pre-vocational as foundation courses are offered that leads to
continuity at either the technical school or at the secondary school.
Senior Secondary School (S.S.S.I).
This level lasts for three years too. Students who pass very well move
to this level for academics in subjects being integrated which are then
separated and studied each as a different subject. This level leads to
the Award of Senior School Certificate Examination and also a stepping
stone to further studies at the Higher Institution of Learning,
Transitional: According to Webster's New World Dictionary of the American
Language, Transitional refers to "Passing from one condition, form,
stage, activity, place e.t.c. to another". Also according to the
Dictionary of Education -Second Edition, transitional pertains to a
state of transition, to passage from one place to another, historically
in evolution pertaining to
passage from one definable type, style or stage to another, changing from an earlier to a later firm.
Typewriting is defined according to Dictionary of Education - Second
edition, as a Course in which emphasis is given to those typewriting
skills and knowledge required of office workers are displayed. Webster's
New World Dictionary of the American Language defines typewriting as
the art or process of using a typewriter for reproducing letters,
figures e.tc. that resemble printed ones.