AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CAUSES OF STRIKE AND ITS EFFECT ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Strike action also called labour strike or industrial, action is a work
stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employee(s) to work. A strike usually
takes place in respond to employee grievances. ·Strike 'became important during
the Industrial Revolution, when mass labour became important in factories and
mines. In most countries, they were quietly made illegal, as factory owners had
far more political power than workers. Most western countries partially
legalize striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries.
Strikes are sometimes used to put pressure on government to change polices.
Occasionally, strike destabilizes the rule of a particular political party or
ruler. In such cases, strikes are often part of a broader social movement
taking the form of a campaign of civil
resistance. A notable example is the stoppage of work by the indigenous
railways workers in (1932) led by Pa Michael Imodu during the colonial era and
the first general strike of (1945) in Nigeria.
Since 1970 to present time, workers demand for improved condition of work
and wages have increased the number of strike actions as management most times
would not accurately satisfy the needs and requests of employees even in the
face of economic recession.
In this study, however, we are going to examine the causes of strike, i.e.
consequences and impact in the achievement of trade union objectives.
Strikes are the most significant aspect of industrial conflict. Strike is
defined as the temporary stoppage of work in the pursuance of grievance or
demand. In practice however, 'it has been difficult to separate strike from
other forms of expression of industrial dispute as employer lock out workers
and workers themselves embark on strike action.
It is more useful to view both phenomena as part and parcel of the conflict
situation, not as opposite. Rarely does a strike occur over a single issue for
an obvious cause may be linked with several other issues that not immediately
apparent to the observation that have caused dissatisfaction because solutions
to them have been long in coming. The actual occurrence of strike depends on
several factors including prevailing circumstances. This also goes to show that few strikes occur spontaneously especially as there is no way of
guaranteeing that strike actions instead of the other forms of industrial
action would be decided upon by workers Involved.
Each time strike occurs substantial man - hour is lost, a good example is
the first general strike of (1945), the (1993) ASU strike where universities in
the country was closed for couple of months thereby causing set back in the
tertiary institution. The Nigeria Labour Congress, NLC, and Trade Union
Congress, TUC, the two major umbrella bodies of workers union in Nigeria
mobilized workers for an indefinite strike action which commenced on Monday,
9th January, 2012 to drive home the protest against the fuel subsidy removal of
January 1st 2012. The government of Nigeria removed fuel subsidy by increasing
the price of petrol per litre from N65 to N141 on January 1st 2012.
This nationwide strike affected the country's economy negatively where the
volume of trading on the floor of the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) fell by 82
percent, local flights were grounded, and lifting of crude oil was hampered.
The strike had a lot of effect on the major sector of the economy as activities
of the, (NSE) that are trading slumped by 80%, while banks complied with the
strike order and closed shop, the NSE opened for business as usual. But at close of trading, only 46.06 million shares were traded in 20 deals.
This is a significant reduction when compared with an average 262 million
shares worth about N1.05 billion traded in 2,509 deals the previous week. The
Nigeria Labour Congress, (NLC) has led a number of general strikes in the past
to mention a few. In 2004, the Nigeria Labour Congress gave the Federal
government an ultimatum to reverse the decision to introduce the controversial
fuel tax or force a nationwide protest strike. The strike threat was made
despite the fact that the Federal High Court judgment in an earlier dispute had
declared the organization lacking legal power to call a general strike over
It is in this context that the research wishes to access the impact of
strike action on the achievement of trade union objectives in both private and
public sectors in Nigeria and how management policies/decisions are influenced
by workers through the representatives (trade union) to the effect of
harmonizing management polices with trade union objectives enhancing efficiency as well as maintain good industrial relation peace
and harmony in the work place using.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE
The unstable industrial relation climate in Nigeria just within the decades
has resulted in all-time record of lost working hours, unprecedented work
stoppage as a result of strike action.
By October 1981,both federal and state government were broke, by December,
seven out of the nineteen state governments could hardly pay the salaries of
their employees; by June 1982,Bendel,Rivers,Cross Rivers, Benue and Imo States were owing teachers two to four months arrears. It was only when
junior workers threatened strike action in Cross River state and teachers
actually abandoned classes in Bendel State after not receiving January salaries
as at April 1982 that both government cleared part of the outstanding amount .
In the first six months of the year 1982, Nigeria lost a total of 4,598
man- hours because of strike action by workers. The recent strike action
embarked by Nigeria Labour Congress in January, 2012 has cost the country
millions of naira as all the sectors of the economy which engage in
productivity activities in order to boost the gross domestic product of the
economy were closed down for couples of days.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to probe into the effectiveness of an
investigation of causes of strike objectives from the management. This study is
based on a case study of LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY.
Precisely, the study is focused on following issues, "tools' for achieving union demands from management using strike as the major tools in
achieving union objectives.
The recommendation which will be based mainly on the findings of the
research will be implemented to strengthen the effectiveness of strike action
as means of achieving union objectives. If on the other hand, the study suggest
a better way of achieving union aims than strike, then of course the mentored
will be recommended.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work focuses particularly on and investigation of causes of
strike. The research is conducted to 'cover and improve the management of
organization focusing on the LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY. For this reason therefore,
the researcher has consulted several reviews, on issues of strike and trade
union to include text books industrial relation, management, social sciences. dissertations from academicians on related issues, Newspaper
edits journal etc. the work would be very large if all the argument of the
different authors are presented but they have been carefully selected so that
only issues particularly concentrating on the impact of strikes on the
achievement of education objectives are considered.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE
A work of this nature is not easy to accomplish for its wide scope and for
the expense it would involve such as financial problems, time constraint,
material cost, apathy on the part of respondent and bureaucratic procedure
involved in releasing data in the institution of my case study. The research
would have been more expensive and capital intensive if it were to cover all
universities, but it is limited to Lagos State University as the case study.
1.6 RESEACH QUESTIONS
What is the perception of an average
university student about ASUU strike action?
How does the strike action by ASUU
affect students' academic performance?
What are the possible ways of
minimizing the effects of ASUU strike on student's academic performance?
What can be done by government to
reduce the incessant strike action to the barest minimum?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The researcher formulates the following hypothesis based on the objectives
and problems identified for the purpose of this research work stating them in
both Null and alternate forms.
Ho: institution objectives are low where there is a
strong and viable trade union.
H1: Institution objectives are high where there is a strong and viable trade union.
Ho: Trade union and management do not co-operate to
raise organizational objectives
H1: Trade union and management co-operate to raise organizational objectives
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the
activities of trade union and organizational objectives.
H1: There is a significant relationship
between the activities of trade union and organizational objectives.
Ho: Unstable union- management relationship has no
significant effect on the organizational objective
H1: Unstable union- management
relationship has significant effect on the organizational objective
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF
This research work will be relevant to institutions and students.
It will be beneficial to other public sectors in Nigeria; it will also be
of importance to government, academicians, potential and future researchers on
the issue of the impact of strike action on the achievement of trade union
objectives in an institution. This empirical study is also important for the
reward of Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) in Guidance and Counseling.
The study will also identify how institutions and union can cooperate to
enhance the achievement of educational objectives in an institution. It will
provide a basis for trade union reorientation objectives are achieved for
better and harmonious institutional relationship. It will also provide a frame
work for management and union to relate for achievement of
1.9 DEFINITION OF
STRIKE: Strike is defined as a temporary stoppage of work in the pursuance of a
grievance or demand.
TRADE UNION: Is a combination of workers who are wages or salary earners form for the
purpose of regulating work terms and condition for maintenance and improving
the employment condition of their members.
A comfortable environment (condition of staff offices and lecture hall,
laboratory rooms and equipment, field and sports equipment, temperature and
humidity, cleanliness, comfort and safety (of floors, classrooms and so fort)
and efficiency (steady product flow, adequate wage and salary, performance
approval, incentive, motivation and welfare services.
GRIEVANCE: situation of dissatisfaction, on the part of the workers of the
EMPLOYEE: Refers to worker(s), person(s) responsible for carrying out day to day
activities of the organization toward achieving the target goals.
EMPLOYER: Refers to the management board, one who engages human and material
resources for the production of goods and services.
MANAGEMENT: Refers in this study to be the government, states government, body employer
and its representatives, head of departments and supervisors inclusive.
DISPUTE: Is any argument or disagreement between employer and workers, or between
workers and workers which is concerned with the employment and non-employment
conditions of work of any person.
WORK: This implies any kind of purposive action i.e. whether paid or unpaid, full time or
part time, formal or informal with reference to an organization; it used to
imply the operation involved in a particular job or work.
ORGANIZATION: A group of people brought together for the purpose of achieving certain
objectives, while these members may change the role of organization which is
its basic unit is maintained.