ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECT ON HUMAN BODY
This study examined biological,
psychological and socio-economic consequences of alcoholism among
adolescent using Yaba psychiatric Hospital as case study. The purpose
was to investigate the degree of relationship among some identified
This study was conducted through the
survey method which involved the construction of questionnaire with
stratified and simple randomly techniques. Also, I attempted to reveal
ways of ensuring adequate involvement and participation of the
government and the general society to solve the problem of alcoholism
and it’s effect on human body.
Furthermore, the test of hypotheses
confirmed that there is significant relationship between alcoholic’s
home and the source of introduction to alcoholism, there is significant
relationship between socio-economic of the alcoholics and the use of
alcohol, there is significant relationship between alcoholics influence
with other peers and the use of alcohol, there is significant
relationship between stressful condition and the use of alcohol, and
there is a significant relationship between alcoholics age and access to
alcohol. It was known that a number of problems and factors influence
adolescent to take alcohol.
Based on this finding, conclusions and recommendations were made.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of contents viii-ix
1.1 Introduction 1-5
1.2 Statement of the problem 5-7
1.3 Statement of Hypotheses 7
1.4 Significance of the study 8-9
1.5 Objective of the Study 9
1.6 Limitation to the study 10
1.7 Operational Definition 10-11
2.1 Concept of Alcohol 12
2.2 Absorption and distribution mechanism 13
2.3 Metabolism and its effects 13
2.4 Effects at initial stages 14
2.5 Carcinogenic effects 14-15
2.6 Alcohol Abuse 15-19
3.1 Alcohol and the human body 20
3.2 The use of animal and insect models in studying
the effect of alcohol on humans. 20-21
3.3 How does alcohol move through the human
3.4 What is “One Drink”? 22-23
3.5 Knowing your blood alcohol content (BAC) 23
4.1 Short-term effects of alcohol on human body 24-28
4.2 Anterofrade Amnesia 28-30
4.3 General effects of alcohol on human body 30-32
5.1 Summary 33-36
5.2 Conclusion 36-37
5.3 Recommendation 37-39
Alcoholism is a disease of a two fold
nature, an allergy of the body and an obsession of the mind (Duke 2006).
It is an age-old public health and social problem. Alcohol is no
respecter of economic status, social and business standing or
intelligence. Neither rich nor poor, learned nor unlettered, all found
themselves for the same destruction. Some people enjoy a social drinking
with no apparent harm to themselves or others. Occasions for drinking
alcohol can come more frequently as a result of a hard day, worries and
pressure, bad news, good news etc. Those who drinks think they can drink
to excess without anyone knowing it. Everyone knows it. The only one
they are fooling is themselves. They rationalize and excuse their
conduct beyond all reason. Those who are alcoholic dependants
experiences intolerable cold sweats, jumpy nerves and lack of sleep
physically, while mentally they are bewildered with fears and tensions,
the complete change in attitude and outlook. Dishonest thinking,
prejudice, ego, antagonism towards anyone and everyone who dares to
cross him/her are the characteristics of alcoholic dependants. Vanity
and a critical attitude are character defects that gradually creep in
and become a part of his/her life. Living with fear and tension
inevitably results in waiting to ease that tension, which alcohol seems
to do temporarily.
Physicians who are familiar with
alcoholism agreed that there is no such thing as making a normal drinker
out of an alcoholic. Science may one day accomplish this, but it hasn’t
done so yet.
- If a person has cancer all are
sorry for him and no one is angry or hurt. But not so with the alcoholic
illness, for with it there goes annihilation of all the things
worthwhile in life. It engulfs all whose lives touch the sufferer’s. It
brings misunderstanding, fierce resentment, financial insecurity,
disgusted friends and employers, warped lives of blameless children, sad
wives and parents, anyone can increase the list. For me, as for most
alcoholics, it was “Eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow you die”.
There are many things worse than dying, but is there any death worse
than the progressive, self-induce slow suicide of the practicing
alcoholic?. The alcoholic suffers death many times over. Alcohol wrings
the gut out of life, eats into the brain in such a way as to make the
alcoholic blind to the truth. Thus, the
Abuse of alcohol continues to be one of
the most significant medical, social and economic problems facing
mankind. Alcoholism related problems affect practically all nations, all
classes of the society, people in all types of jobs and all ages. In
fact, alcoholism has been described as an “equal opportunity
afflation”. Since creation of man, alcohols have always been needed to
rectify the physical discomfort of man. However, the use of alcohol
indiscriminately brings about a bad effect on the human body. These bad
effects which was originally conceived, as the problem of selected few
is today becoming a “disease” of a sizeable proportion of our citizens
especially youths. The problem is so grave that it has extended beyond
the usual characteristics profile of abusers being male, adult and urban
based to now include females, youngsters and those who live in the
rural areas (Folawiyo, 1988). Alcoholism is an important factor in
distribution of family and social relationship accidents, crimes,
violence, disease and illness. Societies pay a heavy toll for
alcoholism in economic as well as in human terms. The history of
alcoholism in Nigeria is a catalogue of changes determined by factors
such as civil changes, rapid urbanization with the disintegration of
family social network, drug availability and lately economic depression
(Guardian Newspaper of 4th March, 1993).
The rapid industrialization and
urbanization witnessed in 1970s led to the multiplication of breweries
and production of all sort of alcoholic beverages of various contents,
couple with thriving allowing easy access to alcohol and then
endangering the life of the abusers. Alcoholism blocks meaningful use of
time, energy and creative thinking. It destroys a person’s ambition to
become great, thereby making him unproductive and a liability to the
society. It is therefore not surprising that virtually all countries
(including Nigeria) have put in place programmes for combating
alcoholism and related problems (Folawiyo, 1988).
In pharmacology, alcohol specifically
ethanol is a nervous system suppressive. Invariably when ingested
interacts with a living organism and brings about noticeable changes in
the way the body functions, or when it is used with the intent or
purpose of bringing about such changes (Cook, 2006).
In Africa as in the rest of the world
people use alcohol specifically ethanol to alter or enhance their mood
based on a variety of need that fall broadly into two categories
- The need to feel better, to alleviate real or imagined pain.
- Appetite and desire for pleasure or entertainment.
The rich may turn to alcoholism for
entertainment or relief from boredom, while the poor are more likely to
use alcohol to escape from their unfortunate situation (Folawiyo, 1988).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The causes of alcoholism are complex and
multifunctional, including social, economic and educational factors.
The problem of alcoholism has risen rapidly over the years and is still
on the increase. There are many reasons for the increase in alcoholism
throughout the region certainly the main factor is the stress of
economic hardship coupled with the breakdown of traditional systems of
community and family support which they need in healthier ways.
In Nigeria this breakdown is much
because of economic hardship and unemployment problem. Many youths turn
to alcoholism as an action to the experience of broken dreams. Alcohol
offers temporary relief for them.
This can be buttressed by the day-to-day
outcry by organizations through various seminars, campaigns, and
workshops organized often by the minister of health and social welfare
and also the ministry of education, even the Non-Governmental
organization (NGO). One of the social problems in Nigeria health sector
today is the management of alcoholics and its social consequences, on
the abusers and society at large. Alcoholics tend to become more of a
nuisance to friends, relatives and society. There is no doubt that
alcoholics constitute part of the nation’s labour force, which reflects a
negative implication on the nation’s economy.
Omotosho (1985) declared that, the
misuse of alcohol by teenagers, young men and women is the greatest
single evil in the country today. He explained that the situation is
extremely dangerous to the survival of the nation. In fact, alcoholism
Have become one of the central problem of our time, that parents
teacher, various bodies like doctors, nurses, social workers,
counsellors, psychologists, exercise physiologists as well as government
and clergymen are now disturbed more than ever before by an alarming
and rapid rate at which our youths in particular are being drawn in the
cub-culture of alcoholism.
Alcoholism have been known to ruin the
career of many promising stars like actors, actresses, musicians,
athletes and intellectuals who would have made meaningful contributions
to the society. Many lives are lost yearly due to the effect of alcohol
used as pleasure and entertainment. However, when alcohol is used
according to accepted medical practice or prescription gives the desired
therapeutic response and when inappropriately used, it results in
immediate or delayed adverse effects and even worsen a pre-existing
Also, other step towards ensuring a free
society is the setting up of a Narcotic, alcohol and drugs abuse
control unit by the federal ministry of health. The units charged with
the responsibility of educating the public most especially youths.
1.3 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
- There is significant relationship between abusers and the source of introduction to alcoholism.
- There is significant relationship between socio-economy of alcoholics and the use of alcohol.
- There is significant relationship between abuser’s influence with other peers and the use of alcohol.
- There is significant relationship between stressed condition and the use of alcohol.
- There is significant relationship between abuser’s age and access to alcohol.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of this study is to
know why adolescents takes alcohol and the sociological, biological and
psychological consequences on the abuser and society. It will find out
the causes of alcoholism among the adolescents. The study will
facilitate and aid advance research on socio-economic consequences of
alcoholism among adolescents. Also it will be used as an eye opener to
the people on the potential benefits, limitations and risks associated
with alcoholism thus serve as an avenue for enlightment of the inherent
danger of alcoholism and make necessary possible solution.
Finally it will be used as a health policy to reduce the intake of alcohol among adolescents.
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Considering the effort of both the
state, federal, ministries and even families on how to curb the menace
of alcoholism among youth and adolescent through various seminars and
Therefore the main objectives of this study are:
- To find out the causes and effects of alcohol in the human body.
- To examine the factors that are responsible for the use of alcohol among adolescent.
- To suggest ways of ensuring adequate involvement and participation
of individual, government and general public on reducing alcoholism.
- To determine if socio-economic consequence on the adolescents lead to alcoholism.
1.6 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
This study will be limited to the
alcoholic inmate in psychiatric hospital, Yaba. This research work will
focus on patients on admission, who are already calm and stable and
could respond to any question positively. Also due to financial
constraints, time available and attitude of respondents towards the
questionnaire, the researcher will limit to only psychiatric hospital
Yaba and it will not include other psychiatric hospitals within the
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
ANTIDIURECTIC HORMONE (ADH):
A hormone, released by the pituitary gland that increases the
reabsorption of water by the kidney thus preventing excessive loss of
water from the body.
CIRRHOSIS: A condition in which the liver responds to injury or death of some of its cells.
HALLUCINATION: A false perception of something that is not really there.
HEPATIC CELL: Relating to the liver
HEPATITIS: Inflammation of the liver caused by viruses, toxic substances, or immunological abnormalities.
METABOLISM: The sum of
all the chemical and physical changes that take place within the body
and enable its continued growth and functioning.
chemical substance released from nerve endings to transmit impulses
across synapses to other nerves and across the minute gaps between the
nerves and the muscles or glands that they supply.
OPIOID: it is used
synonymously. The group includes apormorphine, codeine, morphine, and
papaverine. Opiates depress the central nervous system. They relieve
pain, suppress coughing and stimulate vomiting.
PHARMACOLOGY: the science of the properties of drugs and their effects on the body.
PLACEBOS: Medicine that is ineffective but may help to relieve a condition because the patient has faith in its powers