This study attempted to examine whether
there is a relationship between school location and career aspirations
of students. Some related and relevant literature were reviewed under
sub headings such as the concept of career and career choice, theories
of career choice, peer influence on career choice among others. The
descriptive research survey design was used to assess the opinions of
the randomly selected respondents with the aid of a questionnaire and
the sampling technique. A total of 120 (one hundred and twenty)
respondents were selected as samples for the study. Five null hypotheses
were formulated and tested using the frequency percentages, ranking and
the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistical tool at 0.05 level
of significance. Results showed among others that there was no
significant relationship between school location and vocational
interests of students. It was also revealed that a significant
relationship exist between gender and vocational interest.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Definition of Key Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.0 Introduction 11
2.1 The Concept of Career and Career Choice 12
2.2 Theories of Career Choice 14
2.3 Peer Group Influence on Career Choice 23
2.4 Influence of Parents Social Economic Status on Career Choice 25
2.5 Influence of Sex on Career Choice 27
2.6 Influence of Motivation on Career Choice 28
2.7 Need for Career Information 31
2.8 Expectations in Career Aspirations 35
2.9 Summary of Review 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 44
3.0 Introduction 44
1.1 Research design 45
1.2 Population of the study 45
1.3 Sample and sampling technique 45
1.4 Research instrument 45
1.5 Procedure for data collection 46
1.6 Procedure for data analysis 46
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATIONS AND
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 47
4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses 47
4.3 Summary of Findings 52
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER
1.1 Introduction 53
1.2 Discussion of Findings 53
1.3 Conclusions 57
1.4 Recommendations 58
1.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 60
1.1 Background to the Study
It is quite interesting to hear young
people talk about career aspirations and reasons for their choices. Many
of them especially, the final year students in the various secondary
schools face the problem of choosing a career they will pursue in future
(Munoye, 2000). Considering their age, their choices are influenced by
many factors such as peer group, parents socio-economic status, sex of
the student, interest and motivational level, availability of career
information, subject studied at school and so on. According to Mailumo
(2001) the problem with career aspirations and choice is further
compounded because of the lack of adequate career education, simply put
as work-related education, which he says is a strong determinant of
career choice. He believes that the individual needs to become aware and
well informed of all about the world of work as one of those aspects of
Secondly, there is an acute shortage, if
not a complete absence of trained guidance counsellors in most Nigerian
schools, especially in public and state schools. This need is well
articulated in the revised National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004). The
policy states that “in view of the apparent ignorance of many young
people about career prospects, and in view of personality maladjustment
amongst school children, career officers and counsellors ought to be
appointed in post-primary institutions”.
A one time Minister of Education in
Nigeria, Prof. Jubril Aminu, described guidance and counselling as
indispensable to the 6-3-3-4 system of education, that through its
application, students could be correcting or guided to go into areas
that are best suited to their abilities, aptitudes, interests and
capabilities (Daily Times, March, 20, 1988).
But in spite of all these policy
statements and other pronouncements, most post-primary schools in the
country have not had the opportunity to have guidance counsellors. This
is rather unfortunate because with the multiplicity of career
alternatives based on individual differences, abilities and aptitudes,
education and length of training, sex, interests among others, career
choice is becoming increasingly difficult (Ayo, 1990). The development
in science and technology has led to new careers of which most people
are not aware of (Omoegun and Buraimo, 2001). To Olayinka (1986), Career
services in schools should be an integral part of our educational
system especially, if we want education to be functional, child-centered
Olayinka (1973) investigated the
difference in vocational aspirations of boys and girls in Lagos. This
study revealed that majority of the youths choose jobs without relating
them to their interest and capabilities to cope with the nature of jobs.
This, according to him was due to the absence of adequate guidance by
school counsellors. In the same vein, he asserted that the youths
especially, those living in the urban areas were enticed to choose jobs
simply because such jobs had a high payment or remuneration or for
prestigious reasons. The result of this study also showed that girls
were unrealistic in their choices of some careers when their performance
was observed in certain subject areas.
According to Anyanwu (1994), when one
compares the job aspirations of children from urban and rural areas,
that of the children from urban areas are higher. According to him,
children from high socio-economic status who also live in the
metropolis, tend to aspire to be doctors, lawyers, engineers,
pharmacists, accountants, pilots etc; while children who live in the
rural areas who are not exposed to the urban life tend to have lower
aspirations. The children in urban schools, because of their exposure to
urban life, will always want to meet up with the expectations of their
parents and the society.
As Adeleke (1990) puts it, majority of
the rural children tend to be school drop-outs. Many of them stop school
often to join one trade or the other. They normally become apprentices
to learn one vocation or the other instead of continuing their education
for higher and better choice of jobs at the end of their education in
the higher institutions.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
No doubt, when adolescents choose
careers without adequate direction and information on the type and
nature of career they choose, it leads them to unrealised career
aspiration and fulfillment in life. Also, when one is in a career one is
not cut out naturally for, one is bound to become unhappy and in many
instances, people have been frustrated all through their lives due to
the fact that they made wrong choices in their occupations.
The problems of rural and urban areas
and youths’ choices of occupations cannot be overemphasized. For
example, children in the urban areas usually select careers based on the
information and discretion they have either by their parents or from
the media which abound in the cities than the rural areas.
The youths who dwell in the rural areas
often find it difficult to make a good choice of jobs that will see them
through in life. Rather, due to lack of correct information and
direction on job choice, youths in the rural areas are found to make
wrong career choices. Most of them end up to choose wine tapping,
carpentry, iron benders, plumbers, bicycle repairers, mechanics etc.
This study examines career aspirations of students in the urban and rural schools in Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine and compare career aspirations of students in urban and rural schools in Lagos State.
The specific objectives of this study include:
- To find out whether peer group influences adolescents’ career aspirations in both urban and rural environments.
- To find out whether the socio-economic status of parents influences their children’s career.
- To find out whether the sex of the child has any role to play in the career choice of youths.
- To find out whether motivational level of the child has significant influence on his/her choice of career.
- To find out whether information on career affects children’s involvement in one career or the other.
- To find out whether interest of the child influences his or her career aspirations in life.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in this study:
- To what extent will the career aspirations of students in urban schools differ from that of rural schools?
- Will there be any relationship between peer group and the career choice of students?
- Will there be a significant relationship between parents’ socio-economic status and children’s career aspirations?
- Is there a relationship between the sex of the child and his or her choice of career
- To what extent will interest affect the career choice of students?
- To what extent will there be any relationship between the motivational level of the students and their choice of career?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for testing in this study:
- There will be no significant influence of interest on the vocational aspirations of students in schools.
- There will be no significant gender relationship in the vocational interest of students in schools.
- There will be no significant relationship between parents’ occupation and the vocational interest of students in school.
- There will be no significant relationship between school location and vocational interests of students in school.
- There will be no significant vocational interest by females students in schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great benefit to
students because they would gain an insight on career choice and
aspirations. The study will help them to understand the importance of
choosing a career or selecting subjects that can lead them to certain
jobs in life. With the findings and recommendations of the study,
students will appreciate the essence of choosing the right jobs. Also,
students in the rural areas will be assisted by the recommendations,
which will help them and encourage them to embrace the attributes of
choosing jobs that will be of great importance to them in future.
The result of this study and its
recommendations will help guidance counsellors appreciate the more, the
fact that students at the secondary school level need to be helped
through their wealth of experience in order to choose better careers in
Through this study both the Federal and
State government will appreciate the fact that the child in school needs
to be well guided in order to make a choice of career that will benefit
him in future. The study will help governments to put in place some
systems that will help the child to be able to make a choice of career.
It will also enable government to realise the importance of the school
counsellor to the career aspirations of the child.
Parents will no doubt appreciate this
study because it will enable them to understand the job aspirations of
their children. With the recommendations parents will be encouraged to
be conversant with the future of their children and the danger in
imposing or choosing careers for them.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is a comparative study of career aspirations of students in urban and rural areas of Lagos State.
Participants will be secondary school
children (SS 2 students) from randomly selected secondary schools in
Lagos Mainland representing urban schools and Ikorodu representing rural
The variables to be considered will
include age, socio-economic status of parents of students, interest,
motivational level, peer-group influence and availability of career
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
The terms used in this study will be operationally defined as follows:
- Career: This is defined by Super and Super (1989)
as a sequence of occupations, jobs and positions occupied during a
persons working life. Career will be used interchangeably to mean one
and the same with vocation, occupation, duty, job, profession. These are
what we do to earn a living, although there are subtle differences.
Certain expectations are expected of each career. Doctors are expected
to be clean intellectual and sympathetic lawyers are expected to be able
to argue intelligently. They are to be bold cunning and have broad
world-view. Teachers ought to be disciplined and neat.
- Aspiration: Arnolds (1990), aspiration is a strong
desire to do something great or important. This is the desire youths or
even adults have in getting involved in a certain profession, job or
- Expectation: According to Advanced Learners
Dictionary (1980) expectation is the conditions of expecting something.
It is an hope that one has for the future.
- Motivation: Motivation is the reason to do or for
doing something. According to Abraham Maslow (1943) motivation is a
drive to act on the direction of a particular outcome. Aspiration is a
function of both needs and the probability that those needs will be met.