Fundamental, poverty IS often described as the state or condition
of living in which people have little or no money, assets, or means of support.
Some development economists define poverty with particular reference to basic
human needs which the individual must have in order to survive a family may be
said to have been in poverty when it is unable to satisfy its basic needs. The
basic needs concept in its restricted sense is concerned with food, clothing
and shelter. Basic needs may includes clean air and water, an adequate and
balanced diet, emotional and physical security and climatically appropriate
clothing and shelter. (Burkey, 1993), Greenwald
and association (1965) designed, poverty as a condition in which income is
sufficient to meet substance needs; this implies that level of living standard
may be considerably lower than the minimum living standard. The capital
household expenditure measures of poverty showed that about 71 percent of
Nigerian households are poor out of which 36
percent classified moderately poor Federal Office of Statistics, 1996 (FOS).
Poverty has a lot of detrimental effect
and constitutes a threat to sustainable human development empowerment of poor
is the key strategy to the abolition of poverty. The reality is that poverty is
not only related to the inability to fulfill basic material needs, but it is
also closely connected to various other human dimensions, such as health,
education, environmental long tern security and societal roles.
Consequently, power can only be
understand in its entire nature. If those human dimension is taken into.
account, other may give it a broader meaning, compassing but social and moral
dimension. For example, some believed that, poverty emerge as a result of the
disparities in the ownership of the
means of production, while, other believed, it is related to those particular
attitudes, cultural norms, values and environmental factors prevailing within the society.
Considering nature of poverty there is
need to write about the major causes of poverty in Nigeria.
There is no doubt above the fact poverty
is a global evil, it is also a cause of heartache to economists who cares so
much about the future of all economic wise. In Nigeria, poverty is a phenomenon
that is in the life of almost every Nigerian, due to the fact that 71 percent
of Nigeria household are classified poor out of which 36 percent are classified
as core poor.
A nation blessed with different natural
resources both taped and facing a high level of consumption as a, ratio of
Gross Domestic product (GDP) which implied under development and high
prosperity to consume better. However, this tends to increase the level of
corruption in the country.
Certainly, all sectors of the economy are
capable of producing positive effect on poverty alleviation, if the appropriate
policies and programmes are mapped out. But we are looking at a manager on
development policy that has the targets potentials for alleviation for the poor
who constitutes the bulk of the bloodied rural population.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at invest of the
appraisal of poverty alleviation in Nigeria. It is specific geared towards
attaining the following specific objectives.
examine the impact of macroeconomic policy
on poverty alleviation in Nigeria.
examine the impact of government policy on poverty alleviation in Nigeria.
examine the impact of non-governmental organization on poverty alleviation in
has been effect of poverty on human 'welfare?
are the-effects of income distribution on economic development growth?
government activities impact on economic growth?
to influence unemployment rate in Nigeria?
has been the impact of monetary and fiscal polices on national economic growth
1.5 STATEMENT OF
The study will be guided by the following hypothesis stated
is the null and alternative forms:
1) Ho: That there is no significant
relationship between poverty alleviation and economic growth in Nigeria.
HA: That there is significant relationship between poverty
alleviation and economic growth in Nigeria.
2) Ho: That there is no significant
relationship between employment and poverty alleviation in Nigeria.
HA: That there
is significant relationship between employment and poverty alleviation in
3) Ho: That there is no significant
relationship between macroeconomic policy and poverty alleviation In Nigeria.
HA: That there
is significant relationship between macroeconomic policy and poverty
alleviation In Nigeria.
The researcher will use Econometrics
analysis .to test for the relationship between dependent and independent
variables which involves the use of multiple regression analysis.
The data that would be required for the
study shall be sourced through secondary means. This includes the publications
of the Central Bank of Nigeria, (CBN), Federal Office of Statistics (FOS),
conference papers textbooks, seminars papers and new dailies.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF
Looking at the alarming rate at which
poverty is moving on the economy, government attention is highly desirable, Poverty is one of the feature and
characteristics of the south (i.e the less developed countries). Therefore, a
more pragmatic policy and measures should be embarked on in the area of technological
development, resources mobilization for optional production, high rates of
capital formation etc.
This study therefore seeks to draw
government attention to the ever-increasing rate of poverty in the economy with a view of designing a framework
for its alleviation.
1.8 THE SCOPE
AND LIMITA1'ION OF THE STUDY
This study is designed to examine only
the development project instituted by the three tiers of government in Nigeria
(i.e Poverty Alleviation Programme PAP). The coverage period for the study is
between 1980 to 2009.
This study is limited to the government
project; perhaps, various sectors in the economy have instituted policies in
alleviating poverty particularly the banking industry and the manufacturing industry.
But our analysis as. earlier said shall only be restricted- to the activities
of government-instituted projects.
DEFINITION OF TERMS ICONCEPTS
FOS = Federal Office
GDP = Gross
PAP = Poverty
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF
This study is divided into five chapters.
One would examine the introductory part of the study. Chapter two contains the
review of literature. These writers' perception in the subject matter would be
Chapter three contains the structural
framework of poverty profiles in Nigeria as well as modality for its
measurement. Chapter four would examine Research Methodology, Data analysis and
International of Results. Chapter five rounds up the study with summary,
conclusion and policy recommendations.
Aboyade A.O: Faces of
Economics Society: Poverty dimension in Nigeria, presented
Federal Office of Statistics: Dimension of Structure
Poverty, page 6.2
UNESCO: Poverty Africa perspective, page 170-210.
World Bank: Poverty in Developing Country, 1996 (b)
World Bank: Poverty Human Faces, page 7 (a).