Health is the ability to perform one's roles or
functions. It helps us develop what we are capable of doing to society at
Inadequate health contributed directly to redaction in
productivity and loss of payment for the individuals, with disastrous
consequences for the dependent class, The basic diagnostic point that good
health is an integral part of development has therefore come take centre stage
in development thinking; this point is due to the fact that only healthy people
can earn income afford and seek medical care for themselves as well as their
families, have better nutrition and experience more freedom to live healthier
lives (Dr. Lius G. Bambo 2006).
It is pertinent to note that to sustain our global
environment and improve the quality of living in our human settlements, we
commit ourselves to sustainable patterns of production, consumption,
transportation and settlement development pollution, prevention, respect for
the carrying capacity of Ecosystem and the preservation of opportunities for
future generations (U.N conference and human settlement ,HABIT ATII Istanbul,
In this respect there has been a growing in thrust to
analyze the relationship between health and economic growth this notion was
brought about by the world health organization (WHO) report on health (1999). Dr. Chris Mwrska (2005) comments of reducing
poverty and achieving sustained economic growth.
From this argument ,world health organization (WHO) urge
African government and their partner to design National development plan that
could provide opportunities for innovative reform for health and poverty
reduction within past war or crisis reconstruction and also in the emergence of
new democracies ( Brundtland , 1998).
In its renewed health for all policy the organization
stressed that in addition to developing sustainable health system all
organization efforts to improve health require making central to development by
combating poverty and aligning sectoral programme of heath(Lipson 1996,Lius
As development paradigms move from a faces on economic
growth to more concern for poverty and local ownership improvement in health,
outcomes have gained recognition in programmme of national development and
civil society participation identifies as the largest single factor in
development (Wolfenson, 1999 .world Bank 2000) .The World health organization
(WHO) has constituted a commission on macroeconomics and health (CMH) with the
task of conducting the needed analysis of how health related to macroeconomics
and development issues.
Health indices are crucial part of economy development,
especially in the developing countries .Health indices combine changes in both
quality of life (QOL) and life expectancy (LIFEPEC).Health indices such as
quality of life and life expectancy, infant mortality rate (IMR), disability
adjusted life expectancy (DALE), material mortality rate(MMR) death indicators
or health indi.ces of an economy are being provided solution to through three
basic health sectors of the economy which are :secondary health care, primary
health care and tertiary health care .All these sectors through their functions
provides adequate measure to increase the labour force of the nation and
invariably the level of production in the country . Therefore, it is necessary
to appraise health indices in Nigeria as a important factors in her economic
OF THE STUDY
Available resources are not always reliable accurate,
adequate credible to tackle the priority public health problem in Nigeria
.These resources are not accurate and are inadequate to lay down value judgment
about the health problems in Nigeria demographic data such as census ,health
survey examples are census other demographic data health survey e.t.c. are
However, it is estimated by the united Nations that about
20%of Africa's population reside in Nigeria and that over 50% of African
investment is in its most populous nation( Chinsmnan,1998) .In spite of
substantial economic progress and social advancement in the past thirty years
,there is still much human suffering and setting a development agenda that
meets the need of its citizenry in a cost effective and equitable way about 48.50/0
of the Nigeria population lives in absolute poverty (defined as earning less
than S 1.00 per day ) with about 80% of the poor residing in the rural area
(UNDP 1998) .The gross national product (GNP) has declined from S1.00 in 1980
to S260 in 1995 ,placing Nigeria among the 20 poorest countries in the world
(UNDP 1998) .The quality of life indices recorded in 1980 was 38% in Nigeria
,the united Nation Department programme (UNDP) and human development index
(HDI) for 2000 placed in Nigeria 151 of 174 countries assessed bagging behind
Cameroon .Gambia, Ghana and Zambia without her National and human resource.
Whilst gender development index (GDI) is a little better to 124th position .Yet
this is a country that ranks 6th and th as oil exporter and
production and ranks 10th as the most populous country in the world,
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
IN NIGERIA 1960-2000
Source: UNDP, Human Development Report, Nigeria (2000)
Human Development Report ,Nigeria (2000) figure from the
federal ministry of health indicate that infant mortality rate is 89.3 per 1000
live birth and under .Five mortality rate is 92 per 1000 live births for the
male child and 174 per 1000 live births for the female child .Life expectancy
rate dropped by 52years,Adult literacy rate 59% for male and 39% for female to
47.9 years for male and 49.1 years for female in 2001 only 49% have access to
safe drinkable water and 56.3% access to organized health care service UNDP 1998)
.Also according to NHDR(2001) the life expectancy rate for an average Nigeria
stood Brutish at 51years at birth .The material mortality rate (MMR) of 800 per
1000 live births is one of the highest in the world .
All the above threatening figures put together is due to
the level of poorly planned, inadequate regularity of Nigeria economy .Beside
the lackadaisical attitude of the government towards health development in
Nigeria and these seem to establish the inescapable picture of a country that
is one of the poorest in the world .
In conclusion the above presentation, point s to the
critical stance of the Nigeria economy and therefore call for giant policy
measures to revamp booster and booster the economy.
This however requires constructive macro-economic policy
approaches that will seriously alleviate poverty, redistribution of income and
stimulate investment and output growth.
The adoption of the structural Adjustment programme (SAP)
in 1986 was followed by three years rolling plan (l990-1992).In 1988, the
vision 2010 document was development, and in 2005, the National Economic
Empowerment and development strongly 2003-2007 was put in place and various
policies also exist between 2003 -2007 .The nutrition policy .National policy on
woman, universal basic education (UBE) and micro-credit scheme in Nigeria.
The common object of the development plans was how to
achieve a free and democratic society, a united strong and egalitarian society
and self reliant Nation: a great and dynamic economy and a land of bright and
full opportunities and to it all, improve basic education and health of the
population is seen as cornerstone of economic growth and social development.
1.3 STATEMENT OF
Undoubtedly, the experience of Nigeria economy is one
trapped within the orbit of widespread poverty. organisation, financing and
allocating provision, and health service.
The percentage of allocation of health has always been
about 2.3% of the national budget, although this has increase marginally in
Funding for the sector come largely from government ,more
specifically the federal government .According to the World Bank the basic
spending per capital for the health in Nigeria is less than US S5 dollar and
can be as low as US 82 in some part of the country .The federal government
health recurrent budget show on upward trend from 1996 to 1998 ,a decline in
1999 and a rise in 2000.The bulk of health recurrent expenditure went to
personal and construction of higher technology hospital that were of various
Beyond budgeting allocations another of the health sector
in Nigeria is the gap between budgeted figure and the actual fund released from
the treasury for health activities .In some specific case statistic show that
the actual amount released from the budget is Iowa s30-40% in a year.
This has therefore further heightened the need to support
the development and refinement of National health policies so as to track the
source ,flow funds and take adequate measure within the heath sector so as to
ring about economic growth in Nigeria,
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE
The aim of this study is mainly to examine the
relationship between health and economic growth in Nigeria
Objectives of the study include:
i. To make value judgment on the impact of health as an
important aspect of economic growth in Nigeria
ii. To analyze the Nigeria health, financing reform
iii. To discuss the benefit of the world health organization among others to the
economic growth of Nigeria
iv. To make suggestion to appropriate
authorities as to how health could be effectively and efficiently utilize in
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In this regard the following research question would
guide the study
i, How the health system is organized structure in Nigeria?
ii. What is the impact of health on the economic growth of
iii. What are the major problems in
Nigeria health care system?
iv. What is the
importance of health financing reforms in Nigeria?
infant mortality rate has a negative effect on Economic growth of Nigeria
infant mortality rate has a positive effect on Economic growth of Nigeria
life expectancy does not have any significant impact on economic growth of
Hi: That life expectancy has significant impact on economic
growth of Nigeria.
OF THE STUDY
Fundamentally, the study shall examine the relationship
that exists between heath and economic growth in Nigeria.
Also, the study shall critically appraise the health
financing reform and such raise critical issues that concern it
Lastly, the study would add to the existing literature of
the impact of health system on economic growth of Nigeria.
1.8 SCOPE AND
LIMITAION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study shall be limited to the empirical
impact of health care system on the economic growth of Nigeria and shall be
restricted to the period of l8years. The
scope of this study shall cover the heath financing reforms in Nigeria as well
as the current issues relating to it. However, the study shall be limited to
the impact of heath care system on the economic growth of Nigeria and shall be
restricted to the period between (1990-2010). One major limitation of this
health system is that some of the demographic data gathered may not be
comprehensive and can hardly be relied upon. However, the study shall
concentrate on most relevant indicators such as life expectancy (LIFEPEC) rate
infant mortality (IMR) and gross Domestic Product (GDP).
1.9 METHOD OF
The role of health system in Nigeria economic growth
would be justified with the used of ordinary least square method (OLS)
.Statistical package for social science (SPSS) application will be used the
necessary data would be collected from secondary source such as the central
Bank of Nigeria statistical reports and statements of accounts bulletins ,text
OF THE STUDY
This study shall be designed and contain five chapters
with each chapter focusing on different aspect of reasoning. The background of
the study, statement of the research problem, the objectives of the study and
the methodology to be used shall be discussed in detail in chapter one.
Chapter two shall deal with the literature reviews.
Chapter three shall examine the health care system in Nigeria. The manipulation
of data in different ways, which is termed the methodology and data
presentation, would be concern in chapter four.
Chapter five shall deal with the concluding part of the
study where; summary, conclusion and the recommendation would be discussed.