Economics of communication
transformation deals with the motivation, attitudes, gratification
beliefs and goals, the interest depends on some factors which are the
social environment past experiences, motivational needs, moods and
This topic provides a comprehensive
review of major work on communication transformation. It looks at the
Television Stations and the radio stations which brings the individual
to the happenings around them. Knowledge they say is power and to be
informed is to be transformed while to be uninformed is to be deformed.
Communication is the bound that brings
and holds societies together, without it there will be no coordination,
no cooperation and indeed no social organization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background to the Study
1.1 Statement of the problem
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 Research Hypothesis
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.1.2 History of Television in Nigeria
2.2 Empirical Review
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.3.1 Uses and Gratifications Theory
2.3.2 Selective Theory
METHOD OF STUDY
3.0 Research Design
3.1 Population of the Study
3.2 Sampling Technique and Procedure
3.3 Research Instrument(s)
3.4 Validity and Reliability of the Study
3.5 Method of Data Collection
3.6 Method of Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Summary of Findings
4.3 Discussion of Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4 Limitations of the Study
5.5 Suggestions for further studies
1.0 Background to the Study
There is no individual or society that
can survive without communicating, as no individual or society can stand
as an island. Communication is the bond that brings and holds societies
together, without it there will be no coordination, no cooperation and
indeed no social organisation.
Obilade (1989) lends credence to this
view when he submitted that; "human beings are usually referred to as
social animals, without communication, human beings could be isolated
from one another. Most of the communication that takes place in the
society is aimed at establishing and maintaining meaningful
Knowledge, they say is power and to be
informed is to be transformed while to be uninformed is to be deformed.
Nwuneli (1984) confirms this; if an individual in a society fails to get
information he needs in a well-coordinated fashion, he loses confidence
in the government and society. He becomes more fatalistic than ever and
does not believe he is part of the development effort going on in the
In essence, communication is central to
human existence and all human activities, being the most vital factor in
creating a sense of belonging and attaining a social harmony.
In recent time, human communication has
received a tremendous boost because of technological development. The
innovation of the printing press, telecommunication, radio and
television broadcast, satellite and most recently, the internet has
extended man's ability to transmit and receive information, ideas and
messages. This has broken the barrier of diversity of cultural beliefs
and vast distance, thereby turning the world to a global village where
information travels from any part to another at an unprecedented pace.
Akinfeleye (2003) says "in terms of the acquisition, use, misuse and
management of TV for development, the entire world continues to be
considered by media researcher as a global village whereby everyone
knows everyone, where everyone is each other's keeper, and where every
information about everyone could be received and disseminated to
everyone in that "global village". The media of radio and television
broadcast are widely used as good means of communication because they
reach a wide and scattered audience in short time. As contained in the
new Encyclopedia Britannica (1980); broadcast is the transmission of
radio and television programmes intended for general public perception
as distinguished from private signals to specific receivers. In its most
common form, one may describe broadcast as the systematic dissemination
of entertainment, information, education and other features for
simultaneous reception by individuals or in groups with appropriate
In Africa, the mass media, especially
the television serves useful functions as an agent that disseminates
information and in that way helps in making Africans aware of their
cultural identity and their place in the modem world and such
informative programmes on television are broadcast news, documentaries,
interviews, e.t.c. Television provides necessary information for members
of the public and helps in creating awareness of the outside world. In
the words of Onabajo (2001), Political indoctrination, cultural
innovation, character building and formation are part of what television
could be used to achieve.
The English premiership matches are
watched every weekend all over the world on television simultaneously as
they are being played. Likewise on May 29, 2011, when President Ebele
Goodluck Jonathan was taking oath of office, the inauguration ceremony
was beamed to the whole world live; so also the 2005 MTV Base Europe
Award where Tuface Idibia won an award, Nigerian viewers witnessed the
event live from far away Lisbon, Portugal. All these are as a result of
television broadcasting, which combines the power of sight and sound.
These unique features of television- the
two dimensions of sight and sound enables it to reflect reality of
event to the viewers just as it is and as such attract credibility than
other communication media, because as the saying goes, seeing is
believing. The television medium performs more basic functions, one of
which is for education. Television with its value has been discovered to
be an educational force, which is a fundamental factor to a nation's
development. In a developing country such as Africa where we have a
substantial number of illiterates and also where there is an abnormal
poor reading culture among the illiterates, television and the radio
media are thereby used to transmit, inform and educate to the people.
Little wonder the early founders of television broadcasting in Africa
put education first as their objectives. Also, television provides
entertainment programmes, which contributes significantly to people's
cultural survival, thereby preserving the cultural heritage to be
transmitted to subsequent generations. More so, it performs
entertainment functions which are full in value, that it helps to
distract people's attention from social strains and violence, and also
it fulfils recreational functions to relief one of daily upheavals. Such
entertainment programmes includes drama, musicals, sports, e.t.c.
A television station is a broadcasting
house, a place where broadcasting signals are propagated via
transmitting antennas into the space, for the air wave to transmit the
signals to the receivers sets of various audiences who are located and
scattered in remote places across the reception area. The television
station which houses the TV studio and the control room is stock with
both human and material resources in order to achieve its objectives and
it is only when these objectives are achieved that it can generate
funds to be reinvested and to make more profit.
The human resources of a television
station are the people that are employed by the station and they include
the general manager, the producers, cameramen, presenters, engineers,
public relation officers, marketers, accountants, receptionists,
editors, e.t.c. Onabajo (2001) simply puts them as "broadcast personnel”
that are essential for the smooth running of any organisation". While
.the material resources of the television station are those equipments
that are necessary for transmitting broadcast programme after being
produced. Such equipments, which is quite expensive, determines the
quality of programmes, the strength and the quality of signals of the
These equipments are; the studio
&control room, the transmitters, antenna, video camera, audio
consoles, microphones mixers and switchers, microwaves e.t.c. These
equipments have to be handled by professionals and also they should be
maintained and upgraded regularly because of technological innovations.
Traditional television broadcasting begins in a television station
(studio) except in cases of large spectator events. First, the camera
picks up an image to be transmitted; a device in the camera called a
sync generator makes sure the camera pick up tube is synchronized with
the display tube in the television receiver. It does this by producing
signals, which stimulate coils in the camera, this creates electronic
beam that goes through designated motions and scans the image.
Television uses two kinds of
electromagnetic waves; AM and FM. The FM waves are used to transmit
audio signals while the AM waves are used to transmit video signals. For
colour television transmission, a technique called Multiplexing is
used. It allows colour images to be transmitted without a larger channel
width. These waves travel from studio transmitter separately, but
simultaneously; at the transmitter they are modulated separately then
they combine at the diplexer. The diplexer then sends them as one signal
to the antenna where the waves are propagated.
The transmitting antennas are mounted in
the television station; the antennas are positioned in high places, so
they can easily receive signals. The purpose of the antennas is to
intercept signals that are headed into space and then redirects them
downwards to individual antennas (usually on homes). A television
coverage area depends on several factors;
- The capability of the transmitting antenna.
- The transmitter frequency, which could either, be on VHF (Very High Frequency) or UHF (Ultra High Frequency).
- The transmitter power.
Reception of television broadcast
signals also requires the audience to have receiver's antenna that could
be placed on top of buildings and pointed towards transmitters. From
these antennas the signals are then sent to receiving apparatus
(television set). It is the effective management of these activities
(human & material resources) that however help generate funds for
the television station, as it will attract advertisers particularly for
the private stations who basically survive on spot advertisements. In
Lagos state, there are television stations whose signals are received by
television audience across the state and these stations are owned by;
- Federal Governments
- State Government
- Private Entrepreneurs
The Federal government owned stations
are the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA 2 Channels and NTA 10). They
operate public service broadcasting and are funded by the Federal
government through subventions. They sometimes generate funds through
spot advertisements or sponsorships. The NTA stations which seem to be a
symbol of Nigeria Unity has been in existence since its establishment
NTA 2 Channels 5 whose
slogan is, "your reach out station" is situated at Television house,
Ahmadu Bello way, Victoria Island. Lagos. It operates on VHF with
frequency 175.25 MHz.
NTA 10 (the station for
the nation) also operates on VHF, with frequency 210.]5 MHz. It is
situated at Tejuosho Avenue, Surulere, Lagos.
Emenaku (2003) says, "prior to 1992,
private individuals and organisation were not allowed to operate
broadcasting in Nigeria. The right to operate radio and television
stations were vested only in the Federal government of Nigeria and the
state governments", but since deregulation in 1992 under the Decree
number 38 by the General Ibrahim Babangida's administration, private
investors have being legalized to partake in broadcasting and this has
brought about proliferation of television stations in the country.
All of these stations are for commercial
purposes which are aimed at making profit by meeting with the desires
of its audience. They are run by entrepreneurs and their money comes
from (i) spot advertisements (ii) programme sponsorship (iii) joint
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, television has become a
source of entertainment as well as a good medium for keeping oneself
updated with informative and enlightening issues, This is largely due to
the fact that it has audio-visual characteristics i.e., the unique
ability to see and hear thus appealing to the senses of sight and sound.
Now, the influx of cable stations and TV makes the array of choices
As mentioned earlier, Emenaku (2003)
says, "Prior to 1992, private individuals and organisation were not
allowed to operate broadcasting in Nigeria. The right to operate radio
and television stations were vested only in the Federal government of
Nigeria and the state governments", but since deregulation in 1992 under
the Decree number 38 by the General Ibrahim Babangida's administration,
private investors have being legalized to partake in broadcasting and
this has brought about proliferation of television stations in the
country. Because of this, people now had choices to pick from as there
were specialized stations that provided for specific and targeted
But as they say that everything that has
an advantage also has its own disadvantage. Programming contents
started to seem diluted and more commercially oriented. There was more
focus on the advertising probabilities and the money to be made than on
the content of program. It is now impossible to watch a 30 minute
program without being attacked by different adverts and commercials at
10 minute intervals.
As ides this fact, there are more
entertainment program on TV than there are educational and informative
program partly due to the commercial viability and advantage to the
stations and then their audience. Yet, this defiles the essence of the
medium. People want to get entertained while they get informed and
educated along side. The ability to strike a balance is suddenly
Furthermore, the actualization and
realization of the aims and objectives placed before television stations
are bound to produce certain reactions from its audience who are its
primary public. Viewers represent distinct group of people who watch
television. The viewers of mass media come about as a result of the
media programmes and activities. Such programmes draw criticisms or
support from the public.
The major programmes of television
stations are either for information, education or entertainment
purposes. Through news, interviews and documentaries, they satisfy the
information needs of people. Documentaries and some special programmes
on sciences fulfil the educational function of television, while sports,
musicals, drama and cartoons all play the entertainment role of
television. All these programmes pull certain number of audience who use
television for gratification. But all of them cannot pull the same
number of audience at the same time. Emenaku (2003) says, "One element
that has been introduced by deregulation is variety and this in tum, has
created competition because stations need to retain their viewers". In
other words, the viewing pattern of one programme of the different
stations by the people will be different and such different viewership
pattern of the television station can be attributed to some factors.
The audience preference of one
television station over another is not arbitrary. According to Paterson
(1980), "certain psychological variables, such as self credibility can
influence media preference of television. Therefore, the competition
becomes high where there are many television stations around. This study
therefore intends to investigate the audience preference for television
station among the youths in Lagos State i.e. television stations that
young ones view most. This study will also look into the reasons why
they have a preference for these stations and how the programming
contributes to their choice.
1.2 Research Questions
1. What television station(s) do youths in Lagos metropolis prefer to watch?
2. Why do the youths in Lagos metropolis choose these television station(s) as their preferred?
3. What do the youths in Lagos metropolis use television medium for?
1.3 Research Hypothesis
Ho: Economics of communication Transformation does not contribute positively to the youth.
Hi: Economics of communication Transformation does contribute positively to the youth.
1. To find out the television station(s) youths in Lagos metropolis watch.
2. To find out the reason(s) why youths in Lagos metropolis prefer these station(s).
3. To find out what these youths use these station(s) for.
1.5 Significance of the study
The significance of this study lies in
its potential for contributing immensely in the area of research as it
is a recent study on "audience preference for television stations among
youths in Lagos metropolis".
This study will be of immense benefit to
Mass communication scholarship where students would find it interactive
and would provide a basis for future studies in the area of television
broadcasting. It would also serve as a guide for future programming
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of this study could have being
wider and more detailed but for the constraint of manpower and adequate
financial resources on my part, it will be difficult to generalize my
findings. Therefore, this study has been limited to the youths in Lagos
metropolis alone. The youths range from the ages of 15 to 24 and this
study is going to concentrate on those ones that live in the urban
places in Lagos state. These youths are either students; those leaving
their parental home and establishing new living environments; completing
their full-time education; forming close, stable personal relationship
outside of the family, often resulting in marriage and children; testing
the labour market, finding work and possibly settling into a career.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Audience: A group of people that watch or listen to the radio/television content.
Preference: The choice for one thing at the expense of another.
Broadcast: The transmission of radio and/or television programmes by airwaves or cables to individual receivers.
impulse conveying sound and visual information in communication system
television- Electrical telecommunication system used for instantaneous
transmission of live or recorded sound and visual image to airwave or
cable to the audience.
FM: Frequency modulation used for transmitting audio signals.
AM: Amplitude modulation used for transmitting video signals.
Programme: Contents of the television medium. Things shown on television.
Youths: The period between childhood and adult age.
Metropolis: The capital or Chief city of a country or region; A very large and densely populated city.