Over the year the leading cause of death in women aged between 35-54
years is breast cancer and second to cardiovascular disease in order
women (Logan 1975).
Mortality and incidence rate vary throughout the world with England
and wale making first and us fourteen developing countries like Nigeria
not left. In fact and two leading cancer sites are breast and lung
accounting for about 25% of all cancer such a common disease in women
and 1 and 12 women is affected in the U.S and 1 Nigeria. However its not
surprising that there exist and long list of potential risk factor
these include nutrition Geography Ethic factor aging factor, age of
first birth being breast disorder decrease parity, unopposed ovarian
cycling menstrual experience lactation experience, viral hypothesis
however hereditary and family history of breast cancer are now
considered to be two most important risk factor majority of women now
come to medical attention in developing countries than in developing
countries consequences the current emphasis is on prevention and early
diagnosis of breast cancer so as to minimizes the death rate cause by
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem to be addressed in this work is the development expert
system for the diagnosis of breast cancer artificial intelligence method
are to the employed in the development of the system and sub problem
can be stated as follow
(a) The need for early diagnosis of breast cancer.
(b) The diagnosis of breast cancer require expert skill are short supply
© The need to reduced and mortally and incidence rate by breast cancer
(d) Need to improve the overall quality of health through early expert diagnosis of breast cancer.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1. The study and apply AI technique in development of expert system
2. To show how knowledge can be acquired and represented in intelligence system.
3. To formulate an intelligence diagnosis system and easy diagnosis of breast cancer (dr cr)
4. To demonstrated the use of logic programmes as a logical tool for developing intelligent system.
5. To make a high level of expertise available to less qualified profession
6. To enhance the ability of leading expert in medical diagnosis.
7. To serve the knowledge and expertise of leading expert who eventually retire or die.
1.4 MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY
The need for solving complex diagnostic problem using AI method
(a) There is an increasing need to acquire and store the
knowledge of human experts in automated reasoning system in order to
assist the expert take decision faster and I the absence of the expert.
This study is a in that direction.
(b) Developing generic diagnostic problem solving strategies.
Diagnosis of breast cancer is chosen to demonstrate the application of
AI technique in solving medical diagnostic problem. Breast cancer is a
current topic issued in medicine since the cancer scourge assumed global
important. However the motivation for this study is high not in
diagnosis of breast cancer but also suggesting life expectancy and
possible treatment of breast cancer and other related disease.
The study involve computer based experiments requiring method discussed briefly.
(a) SYSTEM STUDY
This involve elaborated study of the principle and
techniques governing the development and operated of automated reasoning
system for solving complex diagnosis problem the system is studies by
learning its properties and concept through incremental understanding
and knowledge base development and updating the inference engine reveal
the pattern of reasoning adopted by the system to make intelligence
(b) SYSTEM DESIGN
AI methodologies for knowledge representations and
inference will be applied in designing the system this method include.
i. Object the conclusion that is defined by associate rule
ii. Attribute a specific quality that with its rule help define the object
iii. Rules of inference.
Knowledge base can however be a list of object their
associated rule and attribute inference engine part of the knowledge
based to found a situation that matches and its involve.
i. Forward changing techniques data base drive uses
information that is provide to make through a network of logical and or
until the it reaches the terminal point.
ii. Background chaining technique (object drive) reverse of forward chaining
iii. The rule value method request information that has the
greatest importance according to the current state of the system.
However backward changing technique is employed for this study reference from chapter two three.
1.5 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
This study will be implemented with turbo prolong and c as a research
logic programme tool and tested with actual data from hospital and
patient with breast cancer.
1.6 SYSTEM EVALUATION
A system prototype or (software prototype) is first
established the result of diagnosis generated from the system will be
compared with already expect established diagnosis on patient with
breast deviation from the with expected result then the system debugged
until output correspond with expected results then the system can be
analyze as perfect software water fall model from diagnosis and
treatment of breast cancer.
1.7 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
Artificial means man made intelligence according to the
dictionary means “the capacity to apprehend facts and prepositions and
their relation and to reason about them intelligence is related to the
ability to recognize patterns draw conclusion analyze complex system
into simple elements and resolve contradiction. However, AI can be
define as the science of making machine do things that would require
intelligence if done by people (Alan Turning 1950). Moreso, AI can be
defined as the incorporation of intelligent thinking programs into
machine which are executed in solving knowledge intensive “specific”