1.1 INSIGHT INTO LIBRARY SYSTEM
A library can be defined as a room or building where books
are kept and referenced. It is an area of multifarious activity on book
management. A library as a repository of knowledge, houses collections
of books, both reference and general, technical reports, periodicals,
journals, conference proceedings and the likes. Consequently, truth and
knowledge can be found and acquired from the library through the
aforementioned sources. The information contents of any of the
collections can be recorded on microfilms, audiotapes, microchips and
other materials traditionally kept in the library, which is charged with
the responsibility of acquiring, organizing, maintaining, and judicial
circulation of the books and other library materials through the various
sections of the library, for efficient use of the library by the users.
The acquisition, cataloguing, bindery and circulation
sections of the library undertake the acquiring, organizing, maintaining
and circulation of the books/library materials respectively. When the
library through the acquisition section of the library acquires a book,
its record is taken and accession number is given to the book after
which the book will be sent to cataloguing section of the library. Under
this section, the book will be carefully studied and given catalogue
number before it will be sent to circulation section of the library as
the case may be. The circulation section is responsible for circulation
or distribution of books.
This section also arranges the consulted books in the shelves.
There are other sections like reference section, which provides
reference questions and bibliographic service, and serial section where
periodical, journals and related materials are kept. The library also
houses special collections and also operates circulation
control in which books are lent to users. In fact it is indeed a place of multifarious activities on book management.
1.2 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF LIBRARY SYSTEM
Libraries originated with writing about 6000 years ago and that was
when writing was being done using materials like bones, clay, wax,
papyrus, metals, silk, leather, parchment, paper, and other available
materials. Later, these materials were assembled together to form
Among the earliest libraries were ANCIENT LIBRARIES OF CLAY,
which emerged in Iraq and other Mesopotamian region like Syria and
Turkey. In these libraries, records were kept on clay tablets. Within
that period were also ANCIENT LIBRARIES OF ANIMAL SKIN and ANCIENT
LIBRARIES OF PAPYRUS of which Alexandria libraries in Egypt were the
examples. These libraries invariably were connected with temples, for
these institutions were the centers of the whole life of the whole
Moreover, it is widely believed that the private and
institutional libraries are traceable to Egypt and Greece respectively,
and the emergence of public libraries started in Rome. Libraries studies
was given a boost by Julius Caesar during the first century of the
Roman especially with his conferment of the Franchise privilege on all
foreign teachers of liberal education residing in Rome. However, it was
Augustus, who succeeded Caesar that gave a greater impact to scholarship
development. He founded the first public libraries in Rome (69 – 70
AD). He established a library in the temple of peace, which formed the
nucleus of a school of higher learning at a later time.
The history of library development in Nigeria is of recent
vintage. In fact, the earliest library in Nigeria was Tom Jones Library,
which was established in 1910. That was the first public subscription
library in Nigeria. The beginning of academic library was marked in
Nigeria with the founding of Yaba Higher College in 1948. Later on the
British council took over the library sense with the foundation of the
first municipal council library in Lagos, and established British
council libraries in various parts of the country.
Unfortunately, these became a great loss of library stock after
the Nigerian Civil War, and the federal government then took it as part
of its rehabilitation effort in promulgating the National Library’s
decree of 1970, which provided for the branches to be set up in every
state of the federation. Hence repealing the former National Library Act
1964. Within the first decade of its existence, the National Library
has succeeded in stock over 75000 volumes, 2000 period leads, 150
Newspapers and became a depository for the United Nations Organization
(UNO) and its agencies.
With the increase in establishment of universities all over the
country, the government of Nigeria also sees the essence of providing
library in every institution of learning. Now, Nigeria can boast of
libraries in all the higher institutions of learning, almost all the
academic establishments and even private and public establishments.
There are also National and state libraries throughout the states of
federation. But all these libraries have one problem in common; the
backwardness in the automated library world.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In human endeavors, there are a lot of developments, researches, and
discoveries, which result in multifarious production of publications and
library materials. These have brought increase in complexity of library
system and its operations.
Based on these, a number of problems are facing the library systems, which include:
- Unnecessary delay in library processes.
- High cost of staff recruitment and maintenance.
- Error prone operations/processes.
- Inefficiency in library operation.
- Too many paper work and replication of data on multiple pieces of paper.
- Unreliable card catalogue system.
- Mutilation of books by students i.e. students tear/hide books.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
There is hardly any aspect of human endeavor that is today not being
assisted by computerization. The objective of this project: Design and
Implementation of Digital Library Services System with a reference to
Caritas University Library. The application program developed in this
research essentially monitors and keep records of the individual book
movement together with the operations going on in various sections of
the library particularly concerned with book control. These operations
include book lending, returning of the borrowed books, reservation of
books, acquisition processes, registration of users and other related
activities in Library management system.
In this study therefore, the researchers hope to accomplish the following objectives:
- To design a better way of avoiding loss of books in the library.
- To solve the problem of delay in locating books.
- Assist the Liberian to carry out library operations more effectively.
- Eliminate manual operations in the library.
- To achieve high efficiency in the library services.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project looks into the processes involved in keeping
tracks of the books in the library system. The researchers concentrated
on the operations going on in the Acquisition, cataloging and most
especially, circulation sections in the library.
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study will not look in detail into other sections of the library
except the only three sections aforementioned. The intuitive works like
reading of a book before classification and technical work like
ownership stamping conveyance of books etc, this section is not part of
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study gave birth to a new system Digital Library Services
System) designed to bring efficiency in the library system operations.
It will eliminate some of the problems associated with the old (manual)
system of library management, which include cost of equipment and staff
maintenance and also allow institutions to manage the affairs of
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
DESIGN: It is a detail plan or arrangement to achieve a particular purpose.
A SYSTEM: It is an assemblage of interrelated
elements, which we find interesting to study. It could be a process, a
machine or a program.
A PROGRAM: It is a set of instructions and procedures that tells the computer what to do.
AN APPLICATION: A program designed to perform particular tasks.
THE RESEARCHERS: This refers to the developers of the system in study (i.e. Richard).
THE USER: The user here refers to the library staff
or the people who make use of the library. It also refers to the person
who uses the program (e.g. library staff).
AUTOMATION/COMPUTERIZATION: It is a process of making a system to carry out its processes on its own. That without much helps from man.
MODULE: An independent unit that is part of a larger development. It is the same thing as sub-tasks.
VISUAL LIBRARY SYSTEM: It is an application or
program designed by researchers to manage library operations. It is a
program designed with a visual programming language in which the user
will make use of a mouse in operating. It is event driven and objects
appear in their visual forms to the user.