SIMULATION OF A QUEUING SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF IMO STATE TRANSPORT COMPANY ITC OWERRI)
As the size of the world’s population
increased so the number of queues and their queue length. In the
business world, more customers mean more business transactions. Out of
the many ways to attract customers, an efficient queuing system plays an
important role as it reduces a customers waiting time. As a result, the
shorter waiting time makes customer happy, and one thing for sure is
that a happy customer will come back for business again. Queuing as the
mathematical study of waiting times or queues. They study endless
mathematical analysis of several related processes, including the
arrival of the queue, waiting in the queue and being served by servers
at the front of the queue.
Due to the advent of computer
system over the years, has brought considerable changes to many areas of
human endeavor. This technology has led to speed and accuracy of
information that are processed with it. With the introduction of
computer in almost all spheres of life, cumbersome jobs are now done
with a little time and energy. Our present day computers can be used in
airlines reservation, transportation, and patient diagnosis, as an aid
to the handicapped and in providing hospital information systems
Computer system described as an
electronic device that accepts data as input, process the data and
brings, output as information.. Its uses are not overlooked in the area
of simulation. Simulation, which is the process of experimenting or
using a model and noting the results, which occur, It is used in a
technique referred to as the computer assisted instructions. This has
made computers to be continuously ground with scientists, engineers,
medical expert, and businessmen and in transportation, industries,
science and education. Developing a simulation is often a highly complex
mathematical process. Initially a set of rules, relationship and
operating procedures are specified along with other variables, Example
identifying the objectives of the simulation, identifying the input
variables. Distinguish between controlled and non-controlled variables
etc. the interactions of these event new rules, which further evolved as
the simulation procedures. Simulation implementation ranges from paper
and pencil and board game production of situations to complex computer
aided interactive systems. As a technique for instructions, simulation
allows students to deal in realistic way with vital concern. The use of
computers can be employed in simulation of queuing system. Simulation
involves representing aspect of business that can be manipulated by a
computer by trying various alternatives on the simulation model. With
the computer results in the real world can be accurately determined. For
instance if a simulation model for investment practices has been
developed various investment strategies can be tried to ascertain, which
has the likelihood of success.
The term queue as line up of individual,
waiting to be served is found in transport like people waiting to
purchase tickets for their journey, in banks, supermarkets, hospitals,
offices, restaurants etc. this constitutes one important and particular
application of the queuing theory. By analyzing these situations to find
average waiting-times, arrival rates etc. help can be obtained for
making decisions available at particular times of day in order to
process customers faster or whether more queuing spaces are needed.
Imo Transport Company (ITC) has several
terminals; their processes are not computerized. Tickets are issued to
customers on payment, job are done manually. Their queuing system can be
stimulated; this is with the help of models that are computerized. This
will go a long way to facilitating efficiency and aid at proper
satisfaction to its customers.
1.1 Statement Of The Problem
There are many factors that lead to the
investigation or study of this system, queuing is an important issue
that need to be resolved in Imo state transport company’s operation.
Some of the problems that motivate the research to study of this system
- Time wasting
- Idle time at service facility
- Dissatisfaction encounter in the company as a result of queue
- To allocate resources according to encourage customers satisfaction
1.2 Objective Of The Study
Basically simulation is the imitation
representation of the behavior of a dynamic system (capture
expostulation) by that of another system namely a computer base mode.
Therefore the objective of this study include amongst others:
- To test hypothesis and to design or experiment with system that may not yet be available for direct observation or experiment
- By applying digital simulation to help find solutions to problems relating resources allocations to production schedule.
- To achieve an economic balance between the cost of service and the cost associated with the wait required for the service.
- To provide adequate but not excessive service facility. This is
because if too much facility is provided, the service facility will be
often idle. And if too little service is provided, it will lead to
excessive waiting cost. Which shall lead to customer’s frustration and
loss of goodwill.
1.3 Significance Of The Study
The significance of this study cannot be
overemphasized owing to the various areas in which it is applied. The
study of stimulation by the use of model in getting results in the
world, which can be more accurately determined, Its significance can
also be seen in the following reasons:
- The study will go a long way to understand complex interaction of physical or social environmental factors.
- The flexibility of the study is provided because it is easier, less
costly and safer to change a representative of a system than to change
the system itself.
- One of the major significance of this study is to provide an
adequate but not excessive service faculty. This is because if too
service facility is provided, the service facility will often be idle
and if too little service is provided it will lead to excessive waiting
costs in terms of customers frustration and less of good will
- This study will save cost in terms of time and money
- With the use of simulation model, the risk involved in working on the real system is avoided.
- The complexity of the real life system demands a representative model will ease the understanding of the model
1.4 Scope And Limitation
The research is basically limited to the
case study of Imo state transport company. The simulation of queuing
system in this aspect is limited to queuing in transportation.
Manipulation of a simulation system concerns the acceptance of input and
generation of output.
1.5 Background Of The Case Study
Imo state transport company formally
called Imo Transport Corporation is a limited liability company
incorporated under the companies Act of 1968, the company commenced
transport business in August 1988, the same month it was commissioned.
On inception in August 1988,
the company’s “fleet” size was 20 vehicles made up of 10 nos 0365, 42
seater Mercedes Benz buses and 10 nos. 17 seater J-5 buses distributed
over nine operational routes. The main objective of the company is to
provide transport and allied services in the stave and beyond at an
1.6 Background Of The Study
The research is faced with the basis of
transportation. The company is an establishment with over fourthy two
(42) branches Andover two hundred (200) buses serving as the background
of the study. The research is faced towards different services as well
as effective use of the available resources.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Simulation: Simulation is the process of
experimenting or using a model and noting the results, which occur. It
can also be defined as the imitation of some real things, state of
affairs or process.
Model: a model is any representation (physical or abstract) of a real thing, event or circumstance.
Queuing: Queuing is the mathematical study of waiting times or queues.
Input Process: this is the manner in which units arrive at the queuing system.
Calling Population: this is the probability distribution of time between successive arrivals
Service Facility: this describes how customers are served and how they leave the queue system.
First Come First Serve: (FCFS) services are rendered to customers in the order in which they joined the queue.
Last Come Last Serve: (LCFS) services are rendered to customers in the reverse order in which they enter the queue.
Random: there is no order in which customers are served.
Computer Stimulation: this is an attempt
to model a real life or hypothetical situations on a computer so that
it can be studied to show how the system works.
Computer: computer is an electronic
device that accepts data as input and processes it to give information
as its output. It has been describe by several authors to mean several
Ndukwe (2005) windows based application
packages described computer as a robot, an idiot, a magic machine etc.
the author defined computer as an electronic device operating under
stored-programme concept that accept data as input, processes the data
and produces result as output.
Okafor (2006) file design,
organization and management said that efficient file/data management
requires the use of a computer database, which implies that computer is
needed in this research work for record of the system.