DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FINGERPRINT VERIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CRIME

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FINGERPRINT VERIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CRIME

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   Introduction

I shall discuss on the techniques that will be employed by me on accomplishing this research work, its limitation and scope will be highlighted.

 

1.1   Background of Study

        Criminality is part and parcel of human nature and society [Alemika, E. 2004]. That is why no society can claim to be completely crime free. But the types of criminal behavior tend to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given society [Sohnen, E. 2012]. It is therefore not unexpected that a society at a low level of development and as Madden and Chiu (1998) mentioned, uneven distribution of income (and wealth) [Madden, P. and W.H. Chiu. 1998], tends to experience an upsurge in the rate of violent crimes such as armed robbery, politically motivated killings, the use of illegal weapons, ethnic and religious clashes and the like. What is worrisome, however, is that the police which are meant to be the antidote to criminality appear to be getting overwhelmed by the phenomenon [Ash, H.S. 1999]. The criminals appear to be ahead of the police such that the latter now only react to the commission of crimes and usually after the offenders might have left the scene making things appear as if the original emphasis on crime prevention has been completely lost [Awake Magazine. 2002]. Aside other complaints, there are institutional constraints, which contribute to the uncomplimentary image of the police and thereby undermining their capacity to deliver efficient crime control via proper and prompt investigation and policing services. These include inadequate manpower, lack of expertise, lack of adequate equipment, low level of education, low morale, lack of training facilities and lack of technological knowhow, etc.

        In developed countries; computers have been used in crime detection for some decades. Computer- Based Criminal Records Systems were the first of such systems deployed as an attempt to record a person’s criminal history. Before the introduction and the application of computers in criminal records, crime investigation, and detection, most criminal records or other criminal related activities was carried out using the manual or traditional approach in the process of data processing, which involves the use of paper files, manual skills and human brain work.

        The traditional approach of crime investigation is usually time-consuming, resulting in a lot of delay and often generally inefficient leading to high cost. On the other hand, the use of computers in the management of criminal records and crime investigation tends to be very efficient due to the fact that less time is spent on the investigation of crimes since it is automated; giving accurate and reliable criminal investigation results.

        With the introduction of biometrics technology which is an advanced computer techniques now widely adopted as a front line security measure for both identity verification and crime detection, and also offers an effective crime deterrent.

        Biometrics embrace a range of techniques such as fingerprinting and handwriting recognition for identity verification using physical data and behavioral patterns [Gautam, P. and S.G. Sharma. 2011]. In the recent past, fingerprint images were obtained by "ink-technique" which is also referred as off- line fingerprint acquisition [Hiew, B.Y.: 2007]. It is essentially based on the development of pattern recognition systems, today electronic or optical sensors such as cameras and scanning devices are used to capture images, recordings or measurements of a person’s unique characteristics. This digital data is then encoded and can be stored and searched on demand, via a computer. Such biometric search is not only very rapid (often taking place in real time), it is also a process that is accepted globally in establishing forensic evidence in a law court [Drygajlo, A. 2010]. It cannot be over emphasized that there is need to provide for adequate, efficient and effective technological knowhow especially in the area of crime investigation which will make their job simpler and faster, as well as prompt and effective in their service delivery. Consequently, this project will seek to design a computerized fingerprint verification system for crime investigation for The Nigeria Police Force in my state Ota, Ogun  State, Using Biometrics approach (Fingerprint).

 

1.2   Statement of Problem

        Various problems are encountered in the manual system of operations in any organization, so it is in the crime investigation system in Nigeria Police Force. Some of the problems encountered are:

i.            The process of finding the accused and justifying case within the Nigerian security agency has been tedious, most times innocent citizens are convicted for crime not committed because of lack of prove. Or being wrongly accused.

ii.          Criminal case are been investigated blindly or based on assumption, by facial look and appearance. Example. A situations were citizens will be arrested and torture to confess on being guilty of a crime.

iii.        Accuracy about cases being treated by this security agencies are not guaranteed a bit, because there might be a case of the accused being identical or forms of resemblance.

 

1.3   Objectives of Study

        I have been able to identify three core problem to the use of the manual system in crime verification, used by most Nigerian security agencies. Therefore, my objective for this research work is based on those identified problem. Hence my objective is:

1.  To develop a biometrics system where prime suspects on crimes can be verified using their fingerprint.

2.  To integrate a system that will capture the finger metrics of all Nigerian citizens to a single database, and making it available for use and accessible for the course of this research.

3.  To improve the verification system of our security agencies and procedure, thereby, bringing accuracy to their investigation in crime committed.

 

1.4 Research Motivation

        I was actually motivated to research on this and develop a system, such as this, a sophisticated one in this nature.

I was motivated by this research when I witness a murder case with my friend at a hideout, the crime take place at a sunset, while the crime was going on the police force showed up, the criminal was on a mask, covering the face, when the police went after him with shooting, he took off, while escaping, had the mask on his face fall off, though he was not seen. They mask was taken, but the case ended just that was since they were unable to trace the suspect, whereas the suspect evidence is with them (the mask) which has the criminal finger print metrics. This was a matter of scanning it to identify the suspect. Then as a computer science system I had the thought of developing a system that will help to accomplish this task within the unit (Police Force and others).

 

1.5   Aim of Study

        This research work is to develop a secured system, a fingerprint verification system for crime rectification and attesting. A system that will help in anticrime fight, with the aim of bringing justices to the desk.

1.7   Program Limitations

Yes, this system design will be limited to the following constraints, the system can only verify a fingerprint with the scanned one only if such finger metrics ever exist in the system. Therefore, the proposed system cannot act as an intelligent system. The proposed system does not have facts or generate facts but rather analyse records to facts.

1.9 Definition of Key Terms

The following are the key theoretical concepts used in this research:

1.9.1   Automated Fingerprint Identification System

The Automated Fingerprint Identification System is biometric technology with devices that measure human physiological features, like fingerprints, to verify identity (Rejman­ Greene 2001:116; Jamieson et al 2005:16:254). This technology has central capabilities to search for criminal and commercial fingerprints (Du Toit 2007: No Page Number). The Automated Fingerprint Identification System also uses digital imaging to obtain, store and analyse fingerprint data, whilst automated fingerprinting refers to the matching of known fingerprints against a database of familiar and unknown fingerprint images. In its narrow sense, a fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a finger and in a wider sense it refers to traces of impressions from the hand (Marais 1992:22).

1.9.2   Service delivery

Service delivery is an approach that puts pressure on behaviors, systems, procedures, and attitudes within public service institutions, redirecting them in favour of the customer (South Africa 1997:12). Fox & Meyer (1995:118) defined service delivery as the provision of public activities, benefits and satisfactions that are both tangible goods and intangible services. In this research, service delivery consists of the sum of all customer-oriented activities that are carried out by state institutions, in order to fully meet the needs and expectations of customers, who are members of the community.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FINGERPRINT VERIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CRIME

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Criminality is part and parcel of human nature and society [Alemika, E. 2004]. That is why no society can claim to be completely crime free. But the types of criminal behavior tend to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given society [Sohnen, E. 2012]. It is therefore not unexpected that a society at a low level of development and as Madden and Chiu (1998) mentioned, uneven distribution of income (and wealth) [Madden, P. and W.H. Chiu. 1998], tends to experience an upsurge in the rate of violent crimes such as armed robbery, politically motivated killings, the use of illegal weapons, ethnic and religious clashes and the like... computer science project topics

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FINGERPRINT VERIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CRIME

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : COMPUTER SCIENCE
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 49 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

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