I shall discuss on the techniques that will be employed by me on
accomplishing this research work, its limitation and scope will be highlighted.
Criminality is part and
parcel of human nature and society [Alemika, E. 2004]. That is why no society
can claim to be completely crime free. But the types of criminal behavior tend
to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given society
[Sohnen, E. 2012]. It is therefore not unexpected that a society at a low level
of development and as Madden and Chiu (1998) mentioned, uneven distribution of
income (and wealth) [Madden, P. and W.H. Chiu. 1998], tends to experience an
upsurge in the rate of violent crimes such as armed robbery, politically
motivated killings, the use of illegal weapons, ethnic and religious clashes
and the like. What is worrisome, however, is that the police which are meant to
be the antidote to criminality appear to be getting overwhelmed by the
phenomenon [Ash, H.S. 1999]. The criminals appear to be ahead of the police
such that the latter now only react to the commission of crimes and usually
after the offenders might have left the scene making things appear as if the
original emphasis on crime prevention has been completely lost [Awake Magazine.
2002]. Aside other complaints, there are institutional constraints, which
contribute to the uncomplimentary image of the police and thereby undermining
their capacity to deliver efficient crime control via proper and prompt investigation
and policing services. These include inadequate manpower, lack of expertise,
lack of adequate equipment, low level of education, low morale, lack of
training facilities and lack of technological knowhow, etc.
In developed countries;
computers have been used in crime detection for some decades. Computer- Based
Criminal Records Systems were the first of such systems deployed as an attempt
to record a person’s criminal history. Before the introduction and the
application of computers in criminal records, crime investigation, and
detection, most criminal records or other criminal related activities was
carried out using the manual or traditional approach in the process of data
processing, which involves the use of paper files, manual skills and human brain
The traditional approach of
crime investigation is usually time-consuming, resulting in a lot of delay and
often generally inefficient leading to high cost. On the other hand, the use of
computers in the management of criminal records and crime investigation tends
to be very efficient due to the fact that less time is spent on the
investigation of crimes since it is automated; giving accurate and reliable
criminal investigation results.
With the introduction of
biometrics technology which is an advanced computer techniques now widely
adopted as a front line security measure for both identity verification and
crime detection, and also offers an effective crime deterrent.
Biometrics embrace a range
of techniques such as fingerprinting and handwriting recognition for identity
verification using physical data and behavioral patterns [Gautam, P. and S.G.
Sharma. 2011]. In the recent past, fingerprint images were obtained by
"ink-technique" which is also referred as off- line fingerprint
acquisition [Hiew, B.Y.: 2007]. It is essentially based on the development of
pattern recognition systems, today electronic or optical sensors such as
cameras and scanning devices are used to capture images, recordings or
measurements of a person’s unique characteristics. This digital data is then
encoded and can be stored and searched on demand, via a computer. Such
biometric search is not only very rapid (often taking place in real time), it
is also a process that is accepted globally in establishing forensic evidence
in a law court [Drygajlo, A. 2010]. It cannot be over emphasized that there is
need to provide for adequate, efficient and effective technological knowhow
especially in the area of crime investigation which will make their job simpler
and faster, as well as prompt and effective in their service delivery.
Consequently, this project will seek to design a computerized fingerprint
verification system for crime investigation for The Nigeria Police Force in my
state Ota, Ogun State, Using Biometrics
1.2 Statement of Problem
problems are encountered in the manual system of operations in any
organization, so it is in the crime investigation system in Nigeria Police
Force. Some of the problems encountered are:
The process of finding
the accused and justifying case within the Nigerian security agency has been
tedious, most times innocent citizens are convicted for crime not committed
because of lack of prove. Or being wrongly accused.
Criminal case are been
investigated blindly or based on assumption, by facial look and appearance.
Example. A situations were citizens will be arrested and torture to confess on
being guilty of a crime.
Accuracy about cases
being treated by this security agencies are not guaranteed a bit, because there
might be a case of the accused being identical or forms of resemblance.
1.3 Objectives of Study
I have been able to identify
three core problem to the use of the manual system in crime verification, used
by most Nigerian security agencies. Therefore, my objective for this research
work is based on those identified problem. Hence my objective is:
1. To develop
a biometrics system where prime suspects on crimes can be verified using their
integrate a system that will capture the finger metrics of all Nigerian
citizens to a single database, and making it available for use and accessible
for the course of this research.
3. To improve
the verification system of our security agencies and procedure, thereby,
bringing accuracy to their investigation in crime committed.
was actually motivated to research on this and develop a system, such as this,
a sophisticated one in this nature.
I was motivated by this research when I
witness a murder case with my friend at a hideout, the crime take place at a
sunset, while the crime was going on the police force showed up, the criminal
was on a mask, covering the face, when the police went after him with shooting,
he took off, while escaping, had the mask on his face fall off, though he was
not seen. They mask was taken, but the case ended just that was since they were
unable to trace the suspect, whereas the suspect evidence is with them (the
mask) which has the criminal finger print metrics. This was a matter of scanning
it to identify the suspect. Then as a computer science system I had the thought
of developing a system that will help to accomplish this task within the unit
(Police Force and others).
This research work is to
develop a secured system, a fingerprint verification system for crime
rectification and attesting. A system that will help in anticrime fight, with
the aim of bringing justices to the desk.
Yes, this system design will be limited to the following constraints,
the system can only verify a fingerprint with the scanned one only if such
finger metrics ever exist in the system. Therefore, the proposed system cannot
act as an intelligent system. The proposed system does not have facts or
generate facts but rather analyse records to facts.
1.9 Definition of Key Terms
The following are the key theoretical
concepts used in this research:
Fingerprint Identification System
The Automated Fingerprint
Identification System is biometric technology with devices that measure human
physiological features, like fingerprints, to verify identity (Rejman Greene
2001:116; Jamieson et al 2005:16:254). This technology has central capabilities
to search for criminal and commercial fingerprints (Du Toit 2007: No Page Number).
The Automated Fingerprint Identification System also uses digital imaging to
obtain, store and analyse fingerprint data, whilst automated fingerprinting
refers to the matching of known fingerprints against a database of familiar and
unknown fingerprint images. In its narrow sense, a fingerprint is an impression
left by the friction ridges of a finger and in a wider sense it refers to
traces of impressions from the hand (Marais 1992:22).
Service delivery is an approach that
puts pressure on behaviors, systems, procedures, and attitudes within public
service institutions, redirecting them in favour of the customer (South Africa
1997:12). Fox & Meyer (1995:118) defined service delivery as the provision
of public activities, benefits and satisfactions that are both tangible goods
and intangible services. In this research, service delivery consists of the sum
of all customer-oriented activities that are carried out by state institutions,
in order to fully meet the needs and expectations of customers, who are members
of the community.