1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The history of port
development in Nigeria dates back to the middle of 19thcentury. This
was long after the onset of sea borne trade and transactions which followed the
adventures of early explorations of African coats. Initial efforts towards
provision of facilities for ocean going vessels were the attempts to open up
the entrance to the Lagos Lagoon. Considerable littoral drift occurred along
this coast, and the constantly shifting charnels in the bar at the entrance
made entry very difficult.
On February 1, 1914, the
first mail-steamer s/s ‘AKOKO drawing 5.64 metres entered the Lagos harbour.
Two months later, vessels began to use the facilities provided at the customs
wharf on Lagos Island.
Prior to this time,
explorative and trade activities involving European missionaries and businessman
in Africa made the existence of a port on the wide coastal stretch from Calabar
to Lagos imperative. Specifically, in the
15th century the Europeans opened marine contract and discovered the
rich natural resources in the west and central African region that were needed
for their economic and industrial revolution. As a result, the Bight of Benin
was opened up by John d’Averro, of portuguest in 1485 and in1553, captain wyndh
arm of Britain landed on the nation’s coast. The first major breakthrough in
opening was in 1906 up the Lagos Lagoon.
Decision to develop Apapa
port was taken in 1913 and construction of the first four deep-water berths of 548.64
metres long at Apapa began in 1921.
In 1913, Port Harcourt
port was opened to shipping by Lord Lugard, the Governor General. The railway
line to Gugu was completed three years later in 1916.
In 1960, the Nigerian
ports authority embarked on an elaborate manpower development through cadetship
training awards, emphasis was on maririe-Engineering, accountancy, general
management, civil mechanical and electrical engineering.
Lagos is the only
available ports serving the country’s maritime transportation needs.
The Federal military
government enacted a special decree which empowered the Nigerian ports
authority to acquire the ports of narri, Bunltu and Calabar previously operated
by private entrepreneurs.
Holts transport were former owners of werri
UAC owned bumetu port
Calabar port was originally owned by five
NPA spent N3.35 million
at the time to acquire these ports.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Based on the study of the current mode of the operation, the manual and
recurrent procedures of working could bring about errors and reduced
productivity. Customers as a result of eagerness would prefer that their goods
cleared on time but since they are so many activities involved there is delay
in the processing. Items may be mixed up during numbering and duly roles
allocated for identical items. The storage method of information such as and
other important documents can easily be cost hence attracting distrust of the
agency by the client.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This work is aimed at
improving the time constraint during clearance of arrived goods. Also provision
for security and control are made. It is also aimed at reducing the popular problem
of items being mixed up in terms of code numbering, and duty rates allocated
for identical items. It is hoped that this mix up is eliminated and a proper
rating will be given to items as declared in the harmonized tariff text.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The precise limit of this
study is cantered on how to computerized the import duty processing system. It
is restricted only to shipping company system operation.
1.5 LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
During the time of carrying
out the facts and figures of this study, a lot of problems were encountered. Firstly,
it was difficult somewhat to get to the workers of different companies to talk
about the present mode of shipping, clearing and forwarding operations. A lot
of strenuous trips were made to ensure that first hand information was gotten
to make this work successful and reliable one.
However, in spite of a
these limitations, this project has been able to a large extent to achieve the
best out of the limited resources.
The assumptions made in this study are as stated below:
The proper security of the system from
destruction or alteration of information is granted.
It is assumed that theislose of information to
illegitimate users will be denied when the new developed software is duly used.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Cargo - This is equivalent to the term ‘goods’ which includes shipment
Carriage – This is equivalent to the
term transportation as a movement of goods.
Forwarding agent – This is also known as
FREIGHT AGENT, a carrier employee, who receives, forwards or delivers goods or
who represents or directs locally the freight functions of a carrier.
Agent - A person who has authority to express or implied to act on behalf
Rotation number- A number allocated by
the department of customs and exercise to every vessel entering into a port.
Data - With reference to this project it includes basic facts to be
used for counting and for the provision of useful information.
Shipment- This is equivalent to the
term consignment and refers to pieces of bundles of cargo accepted by the
carrier from one shipper at one time and at one address, receipted for in the
Shipper – This is equivalent to
the term consign or and refers to the person whose name appears on the party
contracting with the carrier for the carriage of cargo.
Consignee- This is the person whose
name appears on the shipment record as the part to whom the shipment is to be
Port – This is or shelter for
Vessel – This is a ship for
transport by water.
Bill of lading – This is an acknowledgment
by a carrier that he has received the goods for shipment.
Days – This means the full
calendar days, including sunders and legal holidays provided that for purposes
of notification, the balance of days upon which notice is dispatched shall not
Freight – Cargo of goods handled
by a bulk common carrier of some kind, such as roil, truck or streamship line.
Freight is usually thought of as more of bulky good and less-perishable through
goods shipped by other means, such as express or parcel post in general where
delivery is considered less argent.
Wharf – A landing – stage
built along the shore for landing or unhanding vessels.
Customs duty – This is the right of duty
payable by customstariff act that is in force at the time of the delivery or carnival
of import entry to the proper officer.