during the golden hour of patient transportation helps in improved Medicare.
Presently there are different physiological data acquisition and transmission
systems using cellular network and radio communication links. Location
monitoring systems and video transmission systems are also commercially
available. The emergency patient transportation systems uniquely require
transmission of data pertaining to the patient, vehicle, time of the call,
physiological signals like ECG, blood pressure body temperature, blood oxygen
saturation, and location information. These requirements are presently met by
using separate communication systems for physiological data and location that
result in lot of inconvenience to the technicians, maintenance related issues,
in addition to being expensive. This project presents design, development and
implementation of such a telemonitoring system for emergency patient
transportation using visual basic 6.0. This system is found to be very useful
for emergency patient transportation being undertaken by organizations like Mater
Misericordae Hospital Afikpo.
Telemonitoring is a medical
practice that involves remotely monitoring patients who are not at the same
location as the health care provider. In general, a patient will have a number
of monitoring devices at home and the result of these devices will be
transmitted via a telephone to the health care provider.
A Telemonitoring system
incorporates innovation technology with in-home, self-monitoring assistances to
collect real time updates regarding your loved ones vital signs. The
self-monitoring test result are captured and transmitted to a central database
that stores the information that can be accessed remotely by the patient,
family and their healthcare team. Actions and modifications can be made with
the results and can be utilized for on-going care recommendations.
Radio Service (GPRS) is a data transfer specification used by the Time Division
Multiple Access (TDMA) and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM)
networks. The GPRS system makes use of the entire coverage area and frequency
of its host networks to transmit data packets. Data packets are segments of
data sent between computers or network devices. The GPRS system provide
subscribers uninterrupted data connection instead of a dial-up connection.
Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system for portable devices. It uses a
network of satellites surrounding the planet. A compactible device such bas a
smartphone or a dedicated navigation device has a built-in receiver chip that
picks up regular signals from the satellites. Each signal is time-coded so the
device can calculate how far away it is from the satellite based on the time
the signal takes to arrive. By combining the distances from at least four
satellites, the device can calculate its position to within a few feet. It can
also cross-reference this with map data to provide navigation such as driving
patient Transportation is handled with an ambulance which is a vehicle for
transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of
treatment for an illness or injury especially in emergency and I some instance
will provide out-of-hospital medical care to the patient.
Misericordiae hospital, Afikpo is a voluntary agency built and opened by
catholic bishop of Abakaliki diocese, Late Bishop Thomas Macgettrick in1946
with 24beds which has evolved over the years to 300beds. It is now managed by
the Catholic Diocese of Abakaliki under the proprietor, His |Lordship most rev.
Dr. Michael NnachiOkoro, heading the hospital board which supervises and
coordinates the activities of the hospital.
hospital stands on 18.5 acres of undulating land leased to her since 1946 by
the people of Evuma and Ugwuegu in Afikpo North Local Government Area Ebonyi
State. It is situated away from the centre of Afikpo town, but with easy
accessible road network.
hospital has a large theatre and most of the latest medical equipments needed
to serve you better. Most of these equipments are rarely seen in private
hospitals around and even the public ones. It also has ambulances and other
buses to facilitate the work in the hospital.
of the Problem
number of road accidents victims in every busy city like Afikpo(with the
presence of a higher institution) can be unimaginable. Immediate medical
attention to critically ill patients and accident victims followed by
transportation to a well equipped local facility within the golden hour can
save many lives.
are specifically designed to carry emergency drugs and instruments. The inner
area of an ambulance is fabricated in such a way that it houses emergency
medicine, sterilizer, stretcher and so forth. The personnel inside the
ambulances are specially trained to be emergency technicians. There exist a
need to augment the skill of such paramedics with the Central Monitoring
Station(CNS). The CNS helps in identifying the nearest and appropriate hospital
and coordinating with the medical personnel of the hospital.
of the Study
purpose of this project work is to design and implement a system that cater the
specific requirement of acquiring physiological data, keyed-in data, patient
snapshot, and voice signals and transmitting them using a cellular network to a
Central Monitoring Station that helps in identifying the nearest and
appropriate hospital and coordinating with the medical personnel of that
hospital. Placing the system in an equipped ambulance that can take vital
signs, assess oxygen saturation, monitor blood pressure etc. that will reduce
the risk of death involved in Emergency Patient transportation.
aim of this work is to design a datatransfer and navigation system into a
telemonitoring system for the purpose of facilitating information passage
between the operators of the telemonitoring system and ambulance drivers in
Mater Misericordiae Hospital for the emergency transportation of patients.
of the Study
extent to be covered in this project work is limited to the confines of he
emergency unit of Mater MisericordiaeHospitalAfikpo, which is well equipped
with modern day ambulances and equipment, but with more researches in this
project topic, it can be used in all hospitals with emergency unit and
ambulances to reduce the rate of deaths in emergency situations.
of the Study
of a GPS and GPRS based telemonitoring system for emergence patient
transportation will be of immense benefit to the hospital. The system will
assist the hospital achieve the following:
1. Improve the communication between the
staff of the ambulance and the central
monitoring station records
2. The doctor will understand the physical and physiological
condition of the patient better
so that right decision regarding administration of drugs and transport destination can be
3. Administrative requirements including the location of the
attendance details can easily be retrieved.
Due to the cost of material for
implementing the hardware aspect of this project, the researcher was limited by
financial and time constraints. So the system developed was a simulation of the
GPS and GPRS based telemonitoring system for emergency patients.
Definition of Terms
Virtual : Almost
or nearly as described, not physically existing as such but made by software to
appear to do so.
are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data.
electronic maps of the area that usually highlight the path to follow and the
current position of the user.
3-D: This is a three
dimensional computer graphics of an area
an Acronym for Global Positioning System and it is amodern tracking system.
diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical
features, cities roads etc.
Navigation: The process or
activity of navigating.
mobile phone which incorporates a palmtop computer or PDA