DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM
This chapter gives an overview about the aim, objectives,
background and operation environment of the system.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
voting technology can include punched cards, optical scan voting systems
and specialized voting kiosks (including self-contained direct-recording
electronic voting systems, or DRE). It can also involve transmission of
ballots and votes via telephones, private computer networks, or the Internet.
Electronic voting technology can speed the counting of ballots,
reduce the cost of paying staff to count votes manually and can provide
improved accessibility for disabled voters. However, there has been contention,
especially in the United States, that electronic voting, especially DRE voting,
could facilitate electoral fraud and may not be fully auditable. In
addition, electronic voting has been criticised as unnecessary and expensive to
introduce. Several countries have cancelled e-voting systems or decided against
a large-scale rollout, notably the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
is a country with device ethnic group and corrugated different political motive
ranging from the individual perspective to the political parties. What is
really wrong with Nigeria electioneering process is the wheel to be on power at
all cost not minding the interest of the masses, every political party that is
on power want to retain power for their selfish interest, while doing this,
they map out strategies that will enable them to rig the election either by
crook or hook, this things are not mostly peculiar with the Nigeria system
alone but is common due to the fact that most of the leaders even come out openly
to declare their stands to fight with their last breath to win election. During
the campaign of the last election the immediate past President Chief Olusegun
Obasanjo once stated that “ Peoples Democratic Party (P.D.P.). Will surely
produce the next President no matter the hurdles” with this, one will quickly
deduce the fact that the election was a charade because INEC has been tailored
along the line of P.D.P. candidate even if the party brings a weakling as their
presidential candidate, in this regard the job of INEC is to deliver the
favoured candidate of the ruling party P.D.P. as the President of the country.
is also on record that most states won by P.D.P. are manned by P.D.P. governors
and all the other parties lost their bids in such states, while in some states
where we have other party, such party also won in their states, take for
instance in Lagos State Alhaji Asiwaju Bola Ahmed
Tinubu delivered its state to Action Congress (AC) while in Abia State
Uzor Kalu delivered its state to Progressive Peoples Alliance (P.P.A.) in Imo
state, P.D.P. did not win the state not because they don’t have the machinery,
they intentionally lost the state because they are not in favour of the so
called P.D.P candidate hence they drafted another member of the party
(P.D.P.) to Action Congress (AC) in other to win the election, this said
candidate will soon decamp to its original party Peoples Democratic Party
malpractice has taken a new dimension in the history of Nigeria, most of our
religious leader are now praise singers of politicians, they have ignore their
vows and responsibilities to the people by preaching the gospel which proffers
rather to rain encomium on politician(s) who come to their congregation for
thanks giving to God. Religions leaders should play their role of lordship over
these politicians, they should chastised any dubious person that warrant such
in other to cleans the society from bad eggs, charity they say begins at home
it is the responsibilities of our religious leaders to call their congregation
to other and imbibe in them good norms and morals.
NATIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION
Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is an institution empowered by
the 1999 constitution to conduct election in Nigeria, as an umpire the
institution is supposed to be truly independent in other to conduct a free and
fair election, the commission over the years as shown to the public that is not
capable of conducting a free and fair election, this is manifested in the
series of election held in the forth republic, INEC as always jilted the
electorate by playing the script of its employer. The commission cannot hold a
credible election in the present circumstance if the mode of appointments and
their funding is not changed, the National Assembly should legislate through a
bill empowering the judiciary to appoint members into the board of INEC, this
should be people with credible and unquestionable character without affiliation
to any political party. Most of the problems we have with INEC is that, these
people are members of the ruling party and their mandate is for them to protect
the interest of their political party according to their party constitution and
in the other hand to build confidence of loyalty to those who appointed them as
members of the commission, nothing good can come out of a corrupt mind and as
it were a spade is always a spade. For us to correct our electoral system INEC
must be restructured, all its activities reconstituted, the President should
not have any power over the Chairman of the commission rather the Chairman
should be accountable to the National Assemble while the mode of funding should
also be direct to the Commission instead of waiting for the executive arm of
government to execute projects, if this measures are put in place Nigeria
electioneering process would be sanities to a large extent.
should make it a civic duty to announce the actual result, in the past election
there is a lot of interference in the process of announcing the election result
hence there is a lot of cases laying down in the election tribunal, the masses
are watching how the cases in the various states will be conducted.
is another cancan worm that has eaten deep into the electoral system, a lot of
people are involve in collecting gratification from the politicians thereby
selling their conscience and their votes, it is due to the fact that the
economic situation is not stable, there is a lot of people dying of hunger and
starvation in our communities, this is common in the past election most people
even go to the extent of tumb printing on ballot papers throughout the night
when official voting as not started, this is a cardinal point of rigging an
election using the INEC officials to supply voting materials to top politicians
in a particular area, hence a resident electoral commissioner of INEC
would visit a big name (Politician) in its territory of jurisdiction as a mark
of loyalty to pave way for smooth flow of their corrupt tendency perpetuated at
is rampant in the aspect of our youths, today most politicians have tugs whom
they use to disrupt election and steal ballot boxes from pulling stations, this
are jobless youths who are trying to earn a living from dubious antecedents,
these are the same youths who they use in carrying out their nefarious
activities ranging from political rallies, political assassination etcetera.
The masses are appealing to such youth to desist from their evil way and turn a
new leaf otherwise nemesis will cash up with them, most of the time this same
politicians use and dump such youth, it is high time for us to protect our
votes and work ceaselessly to protect our nascent democracy.
DOWN OF ELECTED OFFICIALS
In this regard all elected officers ranging from the
Presidency, the Governors to the Local Government Chairmen should step down
before the general election is conducted, this due to the fact that, such
officials have influence over the election in their respective domain, they
have the power to hijack the electioneering materials thereby dictating the
area where ballot boxes would be sent to and not to be sent, in the past
election most pulling boot did not receive election material because of fear of
losing the area, while the passive area of their victory will be well furnished
with electoral materials. This is done right from the inception of taking statistics
of eligible voters in the area to the time of registration through the period
of the election proper, base on this points raised, I suggest that all elected
officials should step aside three months or at most two mouths to the period of
the general election. This will also go along way in solving the problem of
intimidating any resident electoral commissioner from doing a thorough job
thereby conducting a free and fair election.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The project aims and objectives that will be achieved after
completion of this project are discussed in this subchapter. The aims and
objectives are to resolve voting issue.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study was to
help and give a benefit to the student, business marketers, school management,
company, and other places that need this system.
The system would improve the monitoring capacities
of those who maintain the system.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
of academic materials.
of financial support
of programming software such as Visual Basic.Net.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work
will concentrate on the implementation of the system to see how it works and
how it can be used.
OF THE STUDY
During the process of data
collection, information relating to Electronic voting System was obtained from the internet and other Library materials. Hence, it is assumed that all the data collected
are correct and contains no false information.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Voting System: An electoral system may be defined as a process or
method through which the people of a given country elect their representative
into different political offices or positions in government.
(INEC): Independent National
Electoral Commission conducted the 1999 Fourth Republic elections.
Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an Organization through
the process of planning, Organization, directing and controlling
System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or
processing by a computer, or incomplete information.
Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting
it in a specified way.
Data entered into a computer for storage or
Information produced from a computer after
System: A set of interrelated components that collect (or
retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making
and control in an organization.
COMPUTER:-Computer is an electronic device that
accepts data as Input, processes data and gives out information as output to
SOFWARE:-Software is set of related programs that
are designed by the manufacturer to control the hardware and to enable the
computer perform a given task.
HARDWARE: - Hardware is a physical part of a computer
that can be touched, seen, feel which are been control by the software to
perform a given task.
DATABASE: - Database is the collection of related
data in an organized form.
PROGRAMMING: - programming is a
set of coded instruction which the computers understands and obey.
TECHNOLOGY: -Technology is the branch of knowledge
that deals with the creation and use technical and their interrelation with
life, society and the environment, drawing upon such as industrial art,
engineering, applied science and pure science.
Algorithm : A set of
logic rules determined during the design phase of a data matching application.
The ‘blueprint’ used to turn logic rules into computer instructions that detail
what step to perform in what order.
17. Application: The final
combination of software and hardware which performs the data matching.