The paper examines the design and implementation of a computerized
reference management system. The research project was carried out to
solve the referencing/plagiarism problem students undertaking their
research projects in universities, polytechnics and colleges of
education face. The research project covered four (4) major referencing
styles namely; MLA, APA, HARVARD and CHICAGO.
The researcher aimed at building a user friendly system where students
can easily enter information sources for accurate, fast citations using
the appropriate referencing style approved by their institutions. The
implementation of the system was achieved using PHP and MYSQL
Referencing simply refers to the process of citing or documenting
the sources of quotes, theories, ideas, illustrations and diagrams used
in writing a university research paper, essay, article, assignments
etc (Archibong, 2014). Referencing is an important task in the research
writing process, as acknowledgements and other necessary credits need
to be given to sources or authors where information is gotten from.
The function of references is to allow the reader to identify the
source of an idea or locate a quotation. They should therefore be clear
and consistent, and poor presentation may be penalized.
References should be numbered in the text and written out in full at the bottom of the page as footnotes (Chernin, 1988).
You should reference every piece of evidence you use and should
also reference key ideas and approaches drawn from the secondary
Footnotes are not included in the word count, but you must not
include any material other than references to secondary or primary
sources. Any written material should go in the main body of the essay or
dissertation. You should also always reference the
book/article/source/lecturein which YOU discovered the information.
Copying out someone else’s footnotes is plagiarism (Laurens, 2009).
Reference management software, citation
management software or personal bibliographic management software is
software for scholars and authors to use for recording and utilising
bibliographic citations (Enrico,2013). Once a citation has been
recorded, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies,
such as lists of references in scholarly books, articles and essays.
The development of reference management packages has been driven by the
rapid expansion of scientific literature.
These software packages normally consist of a database in which
full bibliographic references can be entered, plus a system for
generating selective lists of articles in the different formats required
by publishers and scholarly journals. Modern reference management
packages can usually be integrated with word processors so that a
reference list in the appropriate format is produced automatically as
an article is written, reducing the risk that a cited source is not
included in the reference list. They will also have a facility for
importing the details of publications from bibliographic databases.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent years, the issue of plagiarism has been a dominant
concern for students especially in higher institutions of learning
(Neville, 2007). Some students in Nigerian Universities, Polytechnics
and Colleges of education find it difficult to properly reference a
source of information with appropriate referencing styles approved by
their institutions. However, there can be a fine line between
plagiarism and poor referencing practice, and learner development and
support units in further and higher education institutions report that
students often struggle to understand, not just the 'how-to', but the
'when to' and 'why' aspects of referencing.
Referencing sources in academic writing is such an integral part
of academic writing that academic practitioners do not always give it
the central attention it deserves. According to Angélil-Carter
(2000), some students see referencing or citations as a formality, hence
they do not take it seriously.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to design and implement a
computerized reference management system. Specific objectives of the
- To design a system that will take up citation projects and store information sources in a secured manner.
- To design a system that will enable users to reference quickly and accurately with Modern Language Association (MLA) format.
- To design a system that will enable users to reference
quickly and accurately reference with American Psychological
Association (APA) format.
- To design a system that will enable users to reference quickly and accurately using the Harvard referencing style.
- To design a system that will enable users to reference quickly and accurately using the Chicago referencing style.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will aid students in properly referencing or citing information when writing any academic paper.
the study will contribute to the body of knowledge as it is
relatively new. Student researchers, who find the topic interesting,
will use the paper as a guide in developing other referencing systems.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to the design and implementation of a
computerized reference management system, using PHP and MYSQL
programming languages. The implementation will cover four (4) major
referencing/citation styles namely: MLA, APA, CHICAGO and HARVARD.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial and time constraints were the major limitations to the
study. Financial obligations to get necessary software for the design
aspect of the project were a bit challenging.
Combining the research project with lectures was also stressful on the researcher.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Reference: is a relation between objects in which
one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or
link to, another object.
Reference Management System: Reference management
software, citation management software or personal bibliographic
management software is software for scholars and authors to use for
recording and utilising bibliographic citations (references).
MLA: Modern Language Association
APA: American Psychological Association
System: a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network; a complex whole.
Academic Paper: A research paper usually written at tertiary institution.
Angélil-Carter, S. (2000). Stolen Language? Plagiarism in writing. Harlow: Pearson education.
Archibon, A.A (2014). Ref 101: The
Nitty-Gritty Of Referencing In Research. Retrieved from
Chernin, E. (1988). "The 'Harvard system': a mystery dispelled", British Medical Journal. October 22, 1988, pp. 1062–1063.
Enrico, F (2013). "Usage of Reference Management Software at the University of Torino". JLIS.it. University of Florence. 4 (1). doi:10.4403/jlis.it-8679. Retrieved 29 June 2013
Laurens, M.E. (2009). Maturation, fecundation, and segmentation of Limax campestris, Binney", Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Volume 6, p. 194.
Neville, C. (2007). The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press.