This study was intended to evaluate the assessment
of the effect of organizational culture on the performance of quantity
surveying firms in Nigeria. This study was guided by the following objectives; to
examine the effect of organizational culture on the performance of quantity
surveying firms in Nigeria; To identify the type of organizational culture that
existed among the quantity surveying firms in Nigeria; To identify factors
hindering the performance of quantity surveying firms in Nigeria.
The study employed the descriptive and explanatory
design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to
collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was
analyzed using the regression statistical tool at 5% level of significance
which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under
the study were 50 employees of the September one limited, Lagos branch.
The study findings revealed that there is a
significant relationship between organizational culture on the performance of
quantity surveying firms in Nigeria; based on the findings from the study, efforts
should be made by quantity surveying firms in Nigeria in improving
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
culture defines the way employees complete tasks and interact with each other
in an organization. The cultural paradigm comprises various beliefs, values,
rituals and symbols that govern the operating style of the people within a
company. Corporate culture binds the workforce together and provides a
direction for the company. In times of change, the biggest challenge for any
organization may be to change its culture, as the employees are already
accustomed to a certain way of doing things (Ojo, 2008).
The dominant culture in organizations depends on
the environment in which the company operates the organization’s objectives,
the belief system of the employees and the company’s management style.
Therefore, there are many organizational cultures. For example, highly
bureaucratic and well-structured organizations typically follow a culture with
extensive controls. Employees follow standard procedures with a strict
adherence to hierarchy and well-defined individual roles and responsibilities.
Those in competitive environments, such as sales, may forgo strict hierarchies
and follow a competitive culture where the focus is on maintaining strong
relationships with external parties. In this instance, the strategy is to
attain competitive advantages over the competition. The collaborative culture
is yet another organizational way of life. This culture presents a
decentralized workforce with integrated units working together to find
solutions to problems (Cascio, 2006).
Strong corporate cultures indicate that employees
are like-minded and hold similar beliefs and ethical values. When these beliefs
and ethical values align with business objectives, they can prove to be
effective in building teams because rapport and trust quickly ensues. The bonds
that the teams build help them avoid conflicts and focus on task completion.
Strong corporate cultures ease communication of roles and responsibilities to
all individuals. Employees know what is expected of them, how management
assesses their performance and what forms of rewards are available.
Organizational cultures can have varying impacts
on organizational performance and motivation levels of employee. Oftentimes,
employees work harder to achieve organizational goals if they consider
themselves to be part of the corporate culture. Different cultures operating in
one company can also impact performance. For example, if the organization
maintains a reserved “talk when necessary” culture, employees may work
accordingly; however, if the organization allows one area, say the sales team,
to be outspoken and socially active, the organization may experience rivalries
among areas. Thus, allowing an area to set up their own culture can affect the
performance of the employees deployed elsewhere in the company (Schein, 2004).
However, organizations must structure their
recruitment processes to attract and engage incumbents with the same beliefs
and values that constitute the organization’s culture. This ensures the new
employee’s assimilation to the company and further strengthens corporate
culture. Companies should also ensure that they align corporate culture with
performance management systems. When culture and management systems are not
aligned, management must redirect them so that employee behavior results in the
achievement of organizational goals.
culture comprises the unwritten customs, behaviors and beliefs that determine
the "rules of the game" for decision-making, structure and power.
It's based on the shared history and traditions of the organization combined
with current leadership values. In effect, culture dictates the way we do
business here and the organizational survival tactics that facilitate
assimilation and personal success (Dave and Urich, 2011). With a strong
organizational culture, employees do things because they believe it's the right
thing to do and feel they'll be rewarded for their actions. However, if the
leadership team lacks integrity or squelches diversity, powerful cultures can
morph into cults, cliques, castes and insider clubs. Organizational culture can
be treated as a series of distinctive characteristics of a specific
organization. Some modern definitions of organizational culture are dynamic,
directed at creativity, innovations and entrepreneurship. Organizational
culture includes; a system of ideas and concepts, customs, traditions,
procedures and habits for functioning in a specific macro culture» (Harris,
1981). Organizational culture is a series of values, standards and beliefs
(Handy, 1986). Organizational culture is implicit, invisible, intrinsic and
informal awareness of the organization which directs behaviour of individuals
and which results from their behaviour (Scholz, 1987).
understanding organizational culture it is very important to know all its
elements. Authors are not unanimous about what are the elements of the
organizational culture. According to Armstrong (Žugaj, Cingula, 1992) there are
four important elements of organizational culture. These are; organization
value, organization climate, Leadership style, work processes and system. The
culture of an organization refers to the behaviour patterns and standards that
bind it together Schein (2004). A company's culture tells the people who work
for it what is right and wrong, what to believe, what not to believe, how to
react and how to feel. And its actions speak louder than its words. However,
the researcher seeks to assess the effect of organizational culture on the
performance of quantity surveying firms in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
behaviour patterns of employee towards organizational performance are most
strongly influenced by the leaders of the organization. The words and actions
of the quality control and production managers reflect the values and beliefs
of senior management. Performance management is the process of creating a work
environment or setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of
to Cascio (2006) performance is the degree of an achievement to which an employee's
fulfill the organizational mission at workplace. He continues to say that the
job of an employee is build up by degree of achievement of a particular target
or mission that defines boundaries of performance. According to Ojo (2008) despite the plethora of studies on organizational
culture in the last few decades, the empirical evidences emerging from various
studies about the effect of organizational culture on performance have so far
yielded mixed results that are inconclusive and contradictory. He further
states that researchers concur on the fact that there is no agreement on the
precise nature of the relationship between organizational culture and
of these results the question of whether organizational culture affects
employee performance is however worthy of a further research. Hence, this study
seeks to analyze the effect of organizational culture on the performance of
quantity surveying firms in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
general objective of this study is to analyze the effect of organizational
culture on the performance of quantity surveying firms in Nigeria and the
following are the specific objectives:
examine the effect of organizational culture on the performance of quantity surveying
firms in Nigeria
identify the type of organizational culture that existed among the quantity
surveying firms in Nigeria
identify factors hindering the performance of quantity surveying firms in
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
is the effect of organizational culture on the performance of quantity
surveying firms in Nigeria?
are the types of organizational culture that existed among the quantity
surveying firms in Nigeria?
are factors hindering the performance of quantity surveying firms in Nigeria?
HO: There is no significant
relationship between the organizational culture and the performance of quantity
surveying firms in Nigeria
HA: There is significant relationship
between the organizational culture and the performance of quantity surveying
firms in Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study on the effect of organizational culture
on the performance of quantity surveying firms in Nigeria is significant in the
will enlighten quantity surveyors and other stakeholders in Nigeria on the need
for better organizational culture as the result from this study will guide them
in selecting and adopting better organizational culture in the organization for
research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the
effect of organizational culture on the performance of quantity surveying firms
in Nigeria, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research
in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
study on the effect of organizational culture on the
performance of quantity surveying firms in Nigeria covers all the quantity
surveying firms in Nigeria by carefully examining their organizational culture
and its effect on organizational performance. The study will also cover an
overview of factors hindering organizational performance.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the
efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature
or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire
constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with
other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for
the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Culture: the arts and other manifestations of
human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task
measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and
speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an
obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under
Organization: A social unit of people that is
structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals. All
organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between
the different activities and the members, and subdivides and assigns roles,
responsibilities, and authority to carry out different tasks. Organizations are
open systems--they affect and are affected by their environment.
Cascio W. F. (2006). Managing Human
Resources: Productivity, Quality of Life, Profits. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Dave Hofferberth and Jeanne Urich (2011).
The Effect of Culture on Performance SPI Research, 2011
Handy C. B. (1986): Understanding
Organizations, 3rd ed. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth
Harris P.R., R. T. Moran (1981): Managing
Cultural, 2nd ed., Gulf Publ.Co. Huston
Ojo O. (2008). Organisational Culture and
Performance: Empirical Investigation of Nigerian Insurance Companies, Manager
Journal, No. 2, pp. 118-127.
Schein, E.H. (2009) Organizational Culture
and leadership, Jossey Bass, New York.
Schein, Edgar. (2004) Organizational Culture
and Leadership. (3rded.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Boss
Scholz, Z. (1987): Corporate culture and
strategy - problem of strategic fit, Long Range Planning, Vol. 20, No. 4
Žugaj, M., M. Cingula (1992): Temelji
organizacije, FOING, Varaždin