This study was
intended to evaluate the
effect of motivation of labour, cost and productivity on Nigerian construction
This study was guided by the following objectives; To examine
the factors which motivate employees to perform in the organization, To look at
various techniques of motivating people to performance in the construction
industry, To ascertain the effect of motivation of labour, cost and
productivity on workers in the construction industry of Nigeria, To identify
the problems associated with the motivation of workers in the construction
industry of Nigeria, To suggest the solutions to such problems, if any,
Finally, to improve people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour.
employed the case study
questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect
data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using
the simple percentage mean and chi-square
(X2) statistical tool at 5% level of
significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The
respondents under the study were 160 respondents of Marlum
construction company Benin.
The study findings revealed that there is a
positive relationship between the quality of supervision and motivation to
work; this implies that workers being conscious of the management supervisory
role will put in their best to work. Many of the workers in the company are not
happy with the fringe benefits, which they get from the company.
This study will educate the management of the organization (especially
construction companies in Nigeria) on how to motivate their workers to
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - -
1.2 Statement of General Problem - - - -
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - -
- - -
- - -
- - -
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - -
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - -
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - -
TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual framework - - - - - - -
2.2 Factors that
motivate employees to perform in an organization - - - - - - - - - -
2.4 Theoretical Framework - - - - - -
2.4.1 Douglas McGregor Theory
‘x’ and Theory ‘y’ - - - -
2.4.2 Goal - Setting Theory - - - - - - - -
theory - - - - - - -
2.4.4 The Two Factor Theory by Frederick Hertzberg - - - -
2.4.5 The E.R.G Theory by Clayton Alderfer - - - - -
of Literature - - - - - - -
THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
3.2 Area of study - - - - - - - -
3.3 Source of data - - - - - - - -
3.4 Research Design - - - - - - - -
3.5 Population of the study - - - - -
3.6 Sample and sampling techniques - - - - - -
3.7 Description of the instrument - - - - - -
3.8 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument - - - -
3.9 Method of Data Collection and Questionnaire
3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -
FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - - -
Analysis - - - - - - - - -
4.4 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - - -
of Findings - - - - - - - -
4.6 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -
FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - - - -CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
resource management is of strategic importance when it comes to industries that
are labour intensive like construction industry. The effective management of
human resource is the key towards achieving the higher construction workforce
productivity thus accomplishing the construction projects within their
predefined limits. The bond between motivation and productivity is widely
accepted and of high significance as well. The relationship between motivation
and productivity can be summarized as that productivity is directly linked to
motivation, and motivation is, in turn, dependent on productivity. Suitable
motivation of labour can be hypothesized as a key contributor to maximizing
workers’ productivity Kazaz et al (2008. Workers need motivation just as
equipments need fuel and operators. Motivation is a process which activates
productivity. In order to effectively manage the human resources and to make
sure that workforce is productive enough; it is necessary to understand those
factors which have edge over others for motivating the construction workforce.
In this study, the potential of organizational and economic factors will be
studied for motivating employees.
There were several studies which explored the
relationship between motivational factors and construction workforce
productivity around the globe but there was a scarcity of this work in the
local environment of Nigeria. The construction industry plays an important role
in the development of the economy of the country. Construction industry is an
area influenced by many different factors such as labour, material, equipment
and construction methods etc. Among these factors, human resources come first
without which, other resources would not be utilized or transformed into
productive use. Any improvement in labour productivity would contribute a great
deal to the improvement of the overall productivity as identified by Hashim
(1995). The motivation concept is generally defined as a composition of powers
and mechanisms which help to direct human behavior in a desired manner, or with
a more specific context it is described as the all convincing and encouraging
actions which help workers fulfill their tasks willingly and to come closer to
project objectives. Motivation of the labour force is of paramount importance
because the quality of human performance at the workplace depends largely upon
motivation. That is, higher motivation brings higher productivity which is
suggested by Kazaz et al (2008). According to most researchers there is a
positive relationship between motivation and productivity. This means that when
motivation increases, a rise in productivity is also expected. This reflects
the belief that an increased motivation level causes an increase in
productivity. Achieving the results demands that an adequate quality of inputs
is provided in this first place and improved construction workforce
productivity means a better input and this it will help contractors to be more
competent and profitable whilst executing their jobs.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Construction companies exist for the purpose of rendering some services.
For the organization to meet its objectives, people are employed in the
organization in order to help the organization meet its objectives. Thus, in
order to ensure that people employed in the organization perform optimally
towards the realization of organizational goals, they need to be motivated to
Motivating people to work entails meting their needs. There is a great
controversy over the issue of motivating people.
Some people are of the view that such extrinsic factors like money,
praise, and quality of supervision and company’s policy can motivate people to
work, while others are of the view that such extrinsic factors like advancement
quality of the job done by person, recognition and growth can motivate workers
It is in view of these controversies that this study wants to look at the
motivation of employees in the organization by using Marlum Construction
Company as a case study; and in doing this, the following questions arise:
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
research work hopes to achieve the following objectives:
examine the factors which motivate employees to perform in the
- To look
at various techniques of motivating people to performance in the construction
ascertain the effect of motivation of labour, cost and productivity on
workers in the construction industry of Nigeria.
identify the problems associated with the motivation of workers in the construction
industry of Nigeria.
suggest the solutions to such problems, if any.
to improve people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour.
It is in view
of the above problems that the following questions arise:
1. What are
the factors that motivate employees to perform in the construction industry of
2. What are
the available techniques of motivating employees for higher productivity?
motivation of labour, and cost actually steer employees productive capacity?
4. What are
the problems militating against employees motivation, and
5. How can
these problems of employees’ motivation be addressed in order to improve
productivity in the construction sector of Nigeria?
The following hypotheses
will be tested in this study:
quality of supervision will not motivate workers productivity.
Hi: The quality of supervision will motivate workers productivity.
Ho: A worker’s
perception of what obtained in his organizational will not motivate him to
worker’s perception of what obtained in his organizational will motivate him to
Ho: A worker’s
perception of organizational appraisal policy will motivate him to greater
worker’s perception of organizational appraisal policy will not motivate him to
worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will not motivate him to greater
worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will motivate him to greater
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will educate
the management of the organization (especially construction companies in Nigeria)
on how to motivate their workers to productivity.
The findings of this study
will generate people’s interest in researching into other areas of motivation
in the organization will enrich the literature on motivation as a phenomenon.
Finally, the study hopes
to enrich people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour and
management of people in the organization.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on effect of motivation of labour,
cost and productivity on the construction industry of Nigeria. The study will
also covers the various techniques of motivation and theories of motivation as
they impact on employees productivity in an organization.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms were defined as used in this
Is the ratio of output or production capacity of the workers in an
organization. It is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs
and the amount of outputs from a clearly identified process.
are the workers in an organization,
working for the accomplishment of the organizational goals. In this study, the
employees are those staffs of the organization,
Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses
the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to
Motivation: These are factors (familiarity, concern and
driving force), which exist or are provided in a work situation either
physically or psychologically which determine the input and productivity level
of the worker.
Intimacy: Intimacy or Familiarity could be described as
the feeling of warmth and friendliness based on interpersonal relationship
Consideration or Concern refers to a situation where both their colleagues and
managers treat staffs with understanding. In this case, there is both a
personal and human touch in dealing with workers.
Morale: Moral refers to
staff emotional and mental level of zeal.