AN INVESTIGATION INTO DESIGN ERRORS AND IT IMPACT ON INITIAL COST OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT


AN INVESTIGATION INTO DESIGN ERRORS AND IT IMPACT ON INITIAL COST OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Type: Project Materials | Format: Ms Word | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 107 Pages | Chapters: 1-5 chapters | Price: ₦ 3,000.00

1,976 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@allprojectmaterials.com
AN INVESTIGATION INTO DESIGN ERRORS AND IT IMPACT ON INITIAL COST OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

ABSTRACT

This research project investigated the effects of design error on the final cost of a project in Nigeria. It is a key issue, because many projects in Nigeria have inadequacies in the plans and specifications which have been major causes of changes to the contract. There have been extreme examples of design errors such as numerous building collapses in Nigeria - projects that have wrought disaster after the construction are completed. One or two major errors that can be corrected with only initial cost considerations and little effect on the schedule finally ends up causing major impacts on the final cost and schedule growth. These dilemmas place an increasing pressure on stakeholders in the construction industry to search for solutions that will minimize error in designs so as to maintain estimated construction cost and time while maximizing its quality. One hundred and twenty selected project clients, consultants and contractors in Imo state of Nigeria were issued well structured questionnaires to elicit responses on the investigation of the effect of design error on the final cost of a project, and the analysis of data was done using pie chart. The research study revealed that design error affects final cost of a construction project causing cost overrun on cost and time. Additionally, the research revealed that the issue of cost and time impacts on project construction could be managed by using construction recognized and accepted methodologies which identifies and quantifies the overall impact to the project. The research concludes that unclear scope of work or change in scope of work; time and inexperience of the designer and inaccuracy of the design documents are the major causes of design error on construction projects in Nigeria. In this regard the paper recommends that the consultants’ experience, lack of design reviews, design management experience, awareness of changes in standards, communications and availability of information, inconsistent decision making, and lack of coordination between disciplines, lack of planning and inspection of project and unclear or ambiguous requirements for design specifications should be worked upon by the stakeholders concerned in order to prevent the occurrence of design error in construction projects in Nigeria.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

When asked to define "design error," not all disciplines in the construction process agree on a common definition. Depending on which discipline you address, the owner, the designer or the contractor, there will be a common understanding surrounded by varied conclusions, "a mistake." From the basic definitions of "design" and "error" we conclude that a design error is a deviation from a drawing or specification, also including omissions and ambiguities. It is the seriousness of this error that must be considered to determine its consequences on the overall outcome of the project. One of the most important challenges facing management today is controlling the ball too frequent final cost and schedule overruns that effect the construction industry (Diekmann and Thrush, 1986). One of the major issues to control growth in project final costs and time is the reduction of design errors.

The owner, designer and contractor all have different interests in, or uses for the design of a facility. But what they do share is the commitment to complete the project safely and within a given budget and completion time. There are many initiatives being conducted to control the growth of final cost and schedule within the construction industry.

The major issue is "accuracy of the drawings," or the number of design errors, omissions and ambiguities within the plans and specifications that affect the quality of the facility. Inadequacies in the plans and specifications are the major causes of changes to the contract So much emphasis is placed on the issue of time and final cost that quality takes a back seat .The quality of the project depends on the conformance of the objectives and requirements from the owner. An informative quality management technique will provide an agreement to procedures and definitions among the principle parties for the project. Since design errors have an impact on the outcome of the effectiveness of the contractor's effort on the project it is essential that all parties determine what the definition of a design error should be.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Design errors indicate the total design in-effectiveness of a project. Major design quality problems occur during construction when errors, omissions and ambiguities in plans and specifications become evident (Davis and Ledbetter, 1987). This statement directs that the inadequacies in the plans and specifications are the major causes of changes to the contract. There have been extreme examples of design errors such as numerous building collapses in Nigeria - projects that have wrought disaster after the construction are completed. These are examples of design errors that escaped the close scrutiny of all parties. One or two major errors that can be corrected with only initial cost considerations and little effect on the schedule can impact projects. The projects that really suffer are those with many small errors (design, rework or change of scope) which when finally added up causes major impacts on the final cost and schedule growth. Through Davis and Ledbetters research it was determined that "accuracy of the design documents" was the most critical of the criteria used in the initial evaluation of design effectiveness. This accuracy was further described as the concern for the frequency and impact of errors in the specifications and drawings. This is due to the fact that the drawings and specifications are the most "readily identifiable outputs of the design process." It is even more important that the quality control of designs be addressed during the planning phase and closely monitored during the construction phase.

Design errors of a project have been an issue that has been misconstrued. The attitude towards design errors in the country can now be best described as tardy and unsatisfactory.

 

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.3.1 AIM

The main aim of the study is to investigate how design errors can affect the final cost of a project.

 

1.3.2 OBJECTIVES

The specific objectives are:

1.  To determine what constitutes a design error.

2.  To examine the contributing factors to design errors in Nigeria.

3.  To examine how these factors can affect final cost of a project.

4.  To proffer solutions on how to minimise cost of construction projects in Nigeria.

 

1.4      RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.     What are design errors in construction projects?

2.     What makes or contributes to a design error?

3.     What are the factors that lead to design errors?

4.     What effect can design errors have on final cost and growth of a project?

5.     Who is responsible for design error?

 

 

 

 

 

1.5 HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION

1. H0: Design error affect final cost of a building construction project.

H1: Design error does not affect final cost of a building construction project.

2. H0: Design errors causescost overrun in a building construction project.

H1: Design errors does not causecost overrun in a building construction project.

3. H0: Additional work causes additional cost in a building construction project due to design errors.

H1: Additional work does not cause additional cost in a building construction project due to design errors.

 

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study gives a clear insight into the various ways in which contractors in the construction companies in Nigeria can maximise profits and reduce final cost through effective and efficient contract planning and management. The study also gives a clear insight into the various effects of design errors on the final cost of a project. The findings and recommendations of the researcher will help in building a strong and better project management guideline for contractors in Nigeria.

Also, the study of the investigation of the effect of design errors on the final cost of a project will provide results that will offer the following benefits:

1.  Establish the scope and methodology of design functions performed by Architectural firms for the benefit of the entire construction industry including prospective building clients.

2.  Assist designers in understanding the cost implication of design errors, so that they can make objective design decisions during the early phase of a project.

3.  Avail the designer with a tool for eradicating errors that are directly related to the designer that delay and or add cost to the project.

 

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study is on the investigation of the effect of design errors on the final cost of a project. It is narrowed down to building construction projects in Imo state of Nigeria.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The only limitation faced by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most respondents were reluctant in filling questionnaires administered to them due to their busy schedules and nature of their work. The researcher found it difficult to collect responses from the various respondents, and this almost hampered the success of this study.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

·        Design: The basic definition of design, according to Webster, is "the making of drawings or plans to plan and fashion the form and structure of an object to have intentions or purposes." The quality of planning and design is one of the primary factors of success in any project endeavour (Chalabi, Beaudin and Salazar, 1987). The design includes every aspect of the facility construction including operation and maintenance. The design incorporates a set of specifications to guide the contractor in developing his means and methods of construction.

·        Error: An error is defined, according to Webster, as "a deviation from accuracy or correctness; a mistake, as in action or procedure; an inaccuracy, as in speaking or writing." There are basically three types of errors: imperfections, non-conformance and omissions. Imperfections are deviations in details that have no affect on the assembly or facility (Davis and Ledbetter, 1987).

·        Design Error: From the evaluation above a simple definition of design error is "a deviation from the plans and specifications." It is not the intention of this definition to include any final cost or schedule growth or insinuate its root causes or legal responsibility. It is the responsibility of the owner, designer and contractor to establish the criteria in order to make a reasonable determination for responsibility. The survey shows a common theme, that of a mistake or error in the design. The survey also indicates several reasons why design errors exist and who cause them. This provides evidence that there is not a concise definition within the construction industry.

·        Contract:  Erikson (2002) defined Contract as an agreement that creates an obligation binding upon the parties thereto. The essentials of a contract are as follows: (1) mutual assent; (2) a legal consideration, which in most instances need not be pecuniary; (3) parties who have legal capacity to make a contract; (4) absence of fraud or duress; and (5) a subject matter that is not illegal or against public policy.

·        Contract Planning: According to Simmons (2007),Contract planning is the process of systematically and efficiently managing contract creation, execution and analysis for maximising operational and financial performance and minimising risk.

·        Contractor: General contractor, organization or individual that contracts with another organization or individual (the owner) for the construction of a building, road or other facility.

·        Profit:  Tucy (2008) defined profit as the difference between the purchase price and the initial costs of bringing to market.

·        Final Cost: final costare not fixed, expenses incurred on the purchase of land, buildings, construction, and equipment used in the production of goods or in the rendering of services. Put simply, it is the total final cost used to bring a project to a commercially operable status.

AN INVESTIGATION INTO DESIGN ERRORS AND IT IMPACT ON INITIAL COST OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@allprojectmaterials.com with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

A Research proposal for an investigation into design errors and it impact on initial cost of a construction project:
Reviews: A Review on an investigation into design errors and it impact on initial cost of a construction project, investigation, into, design project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
This research project investigated the effects of design error on the final cost of a project in Nigeria. It is a key issue, because many projects in Nigeria have inadequacies in the plans and specifications which have been major causes of changes to the contract. There have been extreme examples of design errors such as numerous building collapses in Nigeria - projects that have wrought disaster after the construction are completed. One or two major errors that can be corrected with only initial cost considerations and little effect on the schedule finally ends up causing major impacts on the final cost and schedule growth. .. civil engineering project topics

AN INVESTIGATION INTO DESIGN ERRORS AND IT IMPACT ON INITIAL COST OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : CIVIL ENGINEERING
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 107 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

Share Links

Download Post
Download Post

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

Do you need a writer for your academic work?