1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
literally is defined as buildings or other shelters in which people live, a
place to live, a dwelling and to nations a critical component in social and
economic system. Housing represents one of the most basic human needs. To most
groups housing means shelter but to others it means more as it serves as one of
the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and his or her place in
the society (Nubi, 2008). It is a priority for the attainment of living
standard and it is important to both rural and urban areas. These attribute
make demand for housing to know no bound as population growth and urbanization
are increase very rapidly and the gap between housing need and supply becomes
widen. This housing deficit has continued to accumulate over the years as a
result of poor housing policy implementation by successive government in
Nigeria. Cultural factors such as preferences and values or social status,
taste and financial resources, also influence a house physical characteristics.
In developing countries, poor housing delivery has been attributed to
inadequate mechanisms and systems for land allocation, funding, mortgage institutions
and infrastructure (Encarta, 2007).
Nigeria is perhaps the fastest urbanizing country in the African
continent. One of the most important challenges facing the country is the
provision of affordable housing. As more and more Nigerians make towns and
cities their homes, the resulting social, economic, environmental and political
challenges need to be urgently addressed (Raji, 2008). A recent study of
housing situation in Nigeria put existing housing stock at 23 per 1000
inhabitant. Housing deficit is put at 15 million houses (Mabogunje 2007) while
N12 trillion will be required to finance the deficit. This is about 4 times the
annual national budget of Nigeria (FHA, 2007). House prices and rents, on the
other hand, have grown ahead of general inflation. Making matters worse, the
composition of houses for sale and rent on the market has been inexorably
shifting towards very expensive house (Nubi, 2008).
1975 and 1980, there were plans of deliver 202,000 housing units to the public
but only 28,500 units, representing 14.1% was achieved. Also, out of 200,000
housing units planned to be delivered between 1981 and 1985, only 47,200
(23.6%) was constructed. Under the National Housing Fund (NHF) programme
initiated in 1994, to produce 121,000 housing units, it was believed that less
than 5% was achieved. In spite of a series of government policies towards
housing delivery, there exists a gap between housing supply and demand.
has shown that 75% of urban housing is situated in slum conditions (UNDN,
2005), and indeed the quality of the housing is poor and clearly an affront to
human dignity (Agbola and Olatubara, 2003). As part of effort to increasing
qualitative, affordable housing for the masses in the country, the Federal
Government in 2004, pledged to adequately fund research pertaining to the
manufacture and the use of local materials in the sector. Housing delivery in
Nigeria is provided by either the Government or Private sector, but despite
Federal Government access to factors of housing production, the country could
at best expect 4.2% of the annual requirement. Substantial contribution is
expected from other public and private sectors. The production of housing in
Nigeria is primarily the function of the private market; approximately 90% of
urban housing is produced by private developers. Due to housing demand created
by rural- urban migration, which account for 65% of urban population growth,
the fixed supply of urban land, and inflation of rental and housing ownership
cost (Taylor, 2000).
problem of affordable housing has been a concern for both the government and
individuals. Appreciating these problems, both public and private sector
developers make effort through various activities to bridge the gap between
housing supply and demand, but the cost of building materials, deficiency of
housing finance arrangement, rigorous loan conditions from mortgage banks, government
policies amongst other problems have affecting housing delivery significantly
in Nigeria (Raji, 2008). However, the researcher is of the opinion that
government still has much to do in terms of solving housing deficit in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of housing deficit in Nigeria has been a topic
of discussion at different forum of the economy. The situation even becomes
more serious and worrisome when one realizes the fact that despite a number of
political, social, and religious initiatives taken in the past in Nigeria, a
large proportion of the nation’s population still lives in sub-standard and
poor. In Nigeria, housing provision by government commenced before political
independence in 1960 and despite various government interventions and huge
investments in housing provision, the housing problem in the country still
remains intractable as many rural and urban populations in Nigeria do not have
access to decent, safe and affordable housing. This is as a result of the
government inability to provide adequate and affordable housing to the
populace. However, the researcher seeks to examine the role of the federal
government in solving housing deficit in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the role of the federal
government in solving housing deficit in Nigeria.
2. To ascertain the level of housing
deficit in Nigeria.
3. To identify the solution to the
problems of housing deficit in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
is the role of the federal government in
solving housing deficit in Nigeria?
2. What is the level of housing deficit in
3. What is the solution to the problems of
housing deficit in Nigeria?
HO: Government has not solved the
problem of housing deficit in Nigeria.
HA: Government has solved the problem
of housing deficit in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
The outcome of this study will educate the
Nigerian populace on the contribution of government to solving housing deficit
in Nigeria. It will also sensitize the policy makers and the government on the
need to address the problem of housing deficit in Nigeria.
This research will also serve as a resource base
to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research
in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new
explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on the role of the federal government
in solving housing deficit in Nigeria will cover all the attempt made by both
past and present government at addressing the problem of housing deficit in
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the
efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature
or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire
constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with
other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for
the research work.
Agbola, T. and Olatubara, C.O. (2003); Private Sector Driven
Housing Delivery (in Nigeria): Issues, Constraints, Challenges and Prospects, a lead paper presented at the 2nd Annual National
Workshop on Private sector Driven Housing Delivery in Nigeria, University of
Lagos, Lagos, 30th – 3rd July.
Encarta, 2007: A Computer base Microsoft
Raji, O. (2008): Public and private developers as agents in
Urban Housing delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. The situation in Lagos state,
Humanity of social sciences Journal, Vol.3, No.2: Pp. 143-150.
Mabogunje, A. (2003). Welcome address at the Stateholders
Forum on Strategies for enhancing Domestic production of Building Materials
for Mass Housing Development in Nigeria. Held at NICON Hilton Hotel, Abuja,
24th September 2003.
Nubi, O.T. (2008): Affordable Housing Delivery in Nigeria. The
South African Foundation International Conference and Exhibition, Cape Town,
October, Pp. 1-18.
Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004): National housing
Policy Draft, Abuja.