Due to increase in cost of steel reinforcement for the
construction of structure concrete. It becomes impressive to
investigate other types of material that are cheaper and durable for
the construction of a building. This is the reason why an investigation
on the use of bamboo as alternative to steel reinforcement in the
construction of beam was carried out. Test on the strength of steel and
bamboo was carried out by using 3 top and 3 bottom arrangement of
bamboo culms splint of 16mm diameter and that of 16mm steel
reinforcement were carried out to check the adequacy of the bamboo
reinforced concrete after crushing of both steel reinforcement
concrete, it was discovered that the strength of 1:2:4 mix of bamboo
reinforced concrete is higher than the strength of 1:3:6 steel
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
1.1 Aim of the Study
1.2 Objective of the Study
1.3 Scope of the Study
1.4 Limitation of the Study
2.0 Introduction 5
2.1 Bamboo 5 – 6
2.2 Reinforcement 6 – 7
2.3 Fibre 7
2.4 Beam 7 - 8
2.5 Mix Design 8
2.6 Cement 8
2.7 Water 8 - 9
2.8 Cane Fibre 9
2.9 Properties of Concrete 9 - 10
3.0 Methodology 11
3.1 Design and Construction of a Beam 11
3.1.1 Design of
3.2 Procurement of
3.3 Selection and Preparation of Bamboo
3.3.1 Preparation of Bamboo
3.4 Spacing of Bamboo Reinforced
3.5 Mixing Ratio
3.6 Arrangement of Bamboo and Steel
3.7 Concrete Preparation
3.8 Slump Test
3.9 Compacting Factor Test
3.10 Flexural Test in Beams
3.12 Flexural Strength of Concrete beam
4.0 Analysis of Data, Calculation and Result
4.1 Batching of Materials Used
4.2 Flexural Strength Determination
4.3 Maximum Load at Failure
4.4 Calculation for Flexural Strength
4.5 Analysis of Result of Tensile Strength
Bamboo is a natural material found in abundance in tropical Africa with good physical and high mechanical properties.
Bamboo is unique both in tension and compression and has hit its
mark in various part of the world as a good structural material. Bamboo
for its reputation is therefore introduced as reinforcement in
concrete. Bamboo serves as a reinforcement and cane fiber another
material with high strength and aspect ratio serve as links. Research
into the tensile strength added by bamboo cane fiber to concrete is to
be carried out. (Aziz and lee, 2006)
Steel: is very important as building materials used extensively in
structural engineering. It is manufactured from Iron ore (mid or
quarried in certain part of country). Which is subject to a very high
temperature. (Mc kay, 1992).
Concrete is a composite material primarily made up of course
aggregate of insert nature and a binding material. The binding material
serves the purpose of filling the void with in the aggregate and
holding the aggregate together tightly. The aggregate are
differentiated by a called grading. Grading is done using sieve
analysis (Troxell, 1956).
The binding agent in most cases is Portland cement and it is mixed
with portable water to form a paste which is mixed with aggregate to
form concrete. Concrete hardness up in a process called setting after
being placed with a pre-fabrication form work to form a solid structure
material (Ferguson, 1997).
In concrete mixture, the overall proportion of the principle
component (cement, fine aggregate, water, coarse aggregate) the binder
and aggregate are controlled by the following requirement.
1. When freshly mixed, the mass must be workable or place
able. The properly is referred to as workability and it is dependent on
the amount of water present. The more the water beyond the optimum
moisture constant, the less the strength and
2. When the mass hardens, it posses strength and durability adequate for the purpose for which it is intended.
3. Cost of final product is the minimum possible for the accepted quality.
The above listed requirement summarize the properties of concrete
such as strength, elasticity, water tightness resistance to destructive
agencies, volume change, creep extensible and thermal properties.
The primary function of all structure is to carry load or to
resist applied forces of whatever nature. (Troxell, 1956) defined
concrete strength as the ability to carry out the function is dependent
on the strength of the structure, as the unit force stress required to
cause rupture or upset.
Rupture or upset may be caused by applied tensile stress (failure
in cohesion) by applied shearing (sliding) stress or by compressive
Concrete is a brittle material which is much weaker intension than
in compression. Concrete will bear compression force with in it is
carrying capacity. It is not expected to resist direct tensile force
due to its low tensile strength and brittle nature. Tension is
important because it caused cracking (a form of tensile failure). The
weakness of concrete has initiated the need to provide concrete with
the tensile strength it lacks. This is done by introducing into
concrete as material that has good tensile properties. The most commonly
used reinforcement is steel and it has proven very good but for slight
flaws such as high cost of procurement and its relative scarcity.
There is need to search for an alternative that is cheap that is
in abundance and at the same time locally available (Oyenuga, 2008).
1.1. Aim of the Study
The man aim o f the project study is to know how bamboo cane fibre
can be used in the absence of steel so as to reduce the cost of
production of concrete.
1.2. Objectives of the Study
1. To reduce the cost of construction material by using another material that can be readily found locally.
2. To determine the contribution of bamboo-cane fibre to the
strength of reinforced concrete to that of bamboo-cane composite.
1.3. Scope of the Project
The project deals with the dimension of beam to be used the width
of the beam is directly influenced by the width of bamboo split to be
used and reinforce to be used.
- Bamboo used is matured and should be double split i.e.
the dried mature bamboo split 3/4 equal 16mm size, place 3top and
- 16mm split bamboo, 3top split bamboo and 3bottom split bamboo are hold with stirrup bamboo with steel stirrup.
- 16mm steel 3 top and 3 bottoms are hold with stirrup and binding wire
- Mix Ratio: is 1:3:6 and 1:2:4
The proportion is 1 part of cement to 3 part of fine aggregate;
add to 6 part of coarse aggregate and 1part of cement to 2 part of fine
aggregate, add to 4 part of coarse aggregate.
-Water: is the quality of the water used in mixing
the concrete must be such that the chemical reaction which take place
during the setting of the cement, are not impaired (Victor O. Oyenuga,
1.4 Limitations of the Study
Limitation of the study are as follows:
1. Inadequate fund.
2. High cost of materials used for the beams.
3. Transportation problem.