waste water is the water that has been used by a community and which contains
all the materials added to the water during its used.
is thus composed of human body waste (faeces and urine) together with the water
used for flushing toilet and sullage, which is the waste water resulting from
personal washing, laundry, food preparation and the cleaning of kitchen
water is a grey turbid that has an earthy but inoffensive odor. It contains
large floating and suspended solids (such as faeces, rags, plastic, containers,
and maize cabsi), smaller suspended solid (such as partially disintegrated
faeces, paper, vegetable peel and very small solids in colloidal lie non-settle
able) suspension as well as pollutants in true solutions.
is objectionable in appearance and hexadais and contents mainly because of the
member disease causing (pathogenic) organisms. It contains (chapters) in warm
climate waste water can soon loose it content to dissolve oxgen and so become
“state” or septic, waste water has an offensive odour, usually of hydrogen
to (Murray C.J.L and Lovez A.D 1996) water is a common chemical substance that
is essential to all known of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its
liquid state, but the substance also has the solid state known as ice and
gaseous state known as water vapour. It is the abundant source in the earths
says (L.B ESCRITT).
(2006) says that availability of fresh water that is sustained by earths water
cycle varies widely with geographical location. The quality and quantity of
available fresh water is affected by the natural conditions and human
activities. Even with abundance of water on earth, fresh water needed for human
use is a fragile and dinite resource. Water is vital to maintaining the earth’s
climate and it is essential to all forms of life. It is found in everywhere on
the surface of the earth. It make up of more than two third of weight of human
body and without water human being would dead few days.
to (Paul T. Williams) domestic waste treatment are numerous processes that can
be used to clear up waters depending on the types and extent of contamination.
Since waste water is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by
influence says (ESREY, S.A AND HABICHT.J in 1986). Most water treated in
industrial scale water treatment plant (WWTPS) which may include physical,
chemical and biological treatment processes. However, the use of septic tank is
wide spread and aerobic treatment system is used on it, while an aerobic
process are widely applied in the treatment of industrial waste water and
biological sludge modern even system include tertiary treatment by micro
filtration or synthetic membrane. After membrane filtrations, the treated waste
water is indistinguishable from water of natural origin of drinking quality and
required the use of an ozone bubbles percolate through the tank.
to Richard G. Feachman and David J. Bradjey. Domestic waste water treatment are
used to change the physical, chemical or biological characters of the waste
water to reduce its volume and or toxicity an to make the waste water surface
for disposal (N.F GRDY) says Treatment processes are used to convert liquid and
semi solid waste to suitable waste for disposal volume disposal reduction is
the vital waste water treatment function non combustile waste water can be
succeeded, size reduction include melting evaporation and incineration. Domestic waste water treatment may be
required for radioactive, hazardous and other types of waste. Some solid
sanitary waste does not required treatment prior to disposal and hazardous
water are treated by commercial treatment facilities mixed waste (which contain
both hazardous and radioactive component) pose special management challenges
since they are difficult to treat with existing treatment technologies. These
waste water are prohibited from disposal unless they have been treated to
waste water usually comes from toilet urinals, facilities, bathroom and most
floor drains. Varying amounts of water are used to carry these wastes through
pipes to a treatment point. Deferent processing techniques are used to convert
the waste for revse or disposal true sustainable development would not permit
direct disposal of either liquid or solids before re-used.
water management recognized the value of reducing waste water needs properly
treated waste water can be used for toilet flushing (after approved
disinfection) and irrigation (landscape needs or agricultural plantings) the
solid separated from domestic waste water may be incorporated into the solid
waste water (garbage) and composted into an excellent soil amendment product or
an aerobically digested to produced a gaseous energy. Source and a residue that
can be also be used as a soil amendment. If waste water recycling for toilet
flushing is used without concurrent irrigation of vegetation, there will be a
volume of excess liquid that must be sensitively disposed of this will be the
amount of liquid waste coming in each day from all sources, less the
necirculated amount used for toilet flushing. Best
disposal practices would use a suitable area for subsurface movement of the
liquid through soil that provide good filtering and additional treatment before
reaching any body of water. Direct discharge to a water way should be the
lowest priority of alternative investigated, using treated, recycled waste
water for toilet flushing rather than an equal volume of drinking quality water
would save a larger amount of water there are also strong economic and
environmental reasons for using one or more than 20 different low volume
flushing toilet (1.6 gallons per flush) currently on the market, rather than
the more conventional water wasting model. In sea water development sites,
toilets may be flushed with sea water and processed with septic tank and
subsurface treatment and disposal this provide a reliable system if the
corrosive nature of sea water is addressed in selection of materials used in
the piping plumping, pumping and treatment system similar water conservation
can be realized through the use of flow restricted, fine spray shower hands and
sink faucet aerators, spring leaded handles should be installed on faucet
laundry waste volume can be reduced through the use of machines with subs-saver
cycles park and tourism development that make use of water conservation devices
should make an effort to reeducate their visitors on the amount of water (or
energy) they have conserved during their stay, compared with the convention
development. It is order to evaluate their performance. As with all pollution,
sewage is best treated by not creating Its in the first place. Therefore human
waste only becomes waste when there is no used for it.
main aim of this research is to carried out an investigation on how domestic
waste water will be treated in order to meet standard for reused and with a
view to acquiring and developing better understanding of domestic waste water
This study will focus on the
domestic waste water can be treated for reused.
used normal equipment to study or to determine the types of practical to be used to treat each characteristic.
use the appropriate equipment to get result or out come of the test.
to save a large amount of water there are also strong economic and environmental reasons.
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
study of this nature is significantly important because this serves as a eye
opener to analysis of domestic waste water treatment in Nigeria and to examine the manner or important
of domestic waste water treatment in Nigeria as another way of finding
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
the purpose of this research, I shall limit my study to the roles and
importance of practical in the course of domestic waste water treatment in Nigeria which case study, in Osogbo, Osun State.
OF THE STUDY
study is divided into five chapters, chapter one gives a genera background to
the study and screen as the introduction while
chapter two deals with literature review and chapter three deal
with research methodology which is used
to present and analyze the method and equipment that using for the practical,
chapter four deal with resulting of the practical. The last chapter deals with
the summary, conclusion, recommendation and reference of the study.