This project work is on improvement of bearing
capacity of sandy soil by grouting. The sample was collected along Iree-Obagun
road and subjected to various tests such as Compaction test, California Bearing
Ratio (CBR), Atterberg Limit Test, Liquid Test, Plastic Limit Test, and Sieve
Analysis Test. In relation to the subject matter, view of some scholars and
authors were reviewed and the data collected which are presented and analyzed
accordingly. Conclusion and recommendation are made at the end of this research.
However, the research work is not on itself as it is recommended for further
TABLE OF CONTENT
of content vi-viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Historical Background of Grouting 1-2
1.2 Aims and Objectives 2
1.3 Scope of the Study 2
1.4 Limitation of the Study 3
2.0 Literature review 4
2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Strength improvement of densification 4
2.3 Grouting techniques 6-9
2.4 Grouting materials 9-11
2.5 Shear strength of grouted soils 11-12
2.6 Compressive strength 12
2.7 Permeability studies on grouted sandy soils 12
Research Methodology 14
3.1 Method of Data Collection 14
3.1.1 Compaction Test 14-17
3.1.2 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) 17-19
3.1.3 Atterberg Limit Test 19-20
3.1.4 Plastic Limit Test 20-22
3.1.5 Sieve Analysis Test 22
4.0 Result and Discussion 23
4.1 Introduction 23
4.1.1 Sieve Analysis Test Results 32-31
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 32
5.1 Conclusion 32
5.2 Recommendation 32 References 33
The construction of structure
on weak ground often requires the soil to be improved in order to ensure the
safety and the stability of surrounding buildings. The ground improvement in
granular soils can be achieved by different methods such as vibro-floatation,
compaction piles, and compaction with explosives, excavation and replacement,
grouting e.t.c. The selective of the most suitable method depend on a variety
of factors, such as: soil conditions, required degree of compaction, types of
structure to be supported, as well as site specific considerations available
time for completion of the project, availability of equipment and materials
Soil compaction can offer
effective solutions for many foundation problems and his especially useful for
reducing total settlement in sand.
Sandy soil means most of the
soil particles are bigger than 2mm in diameter. It gives good water drainage
and has a low capacity to hold nutrients. Sandy soil does not hold moisture
very well. It is granular and consists of rock and mineral particle that are
very small. Therefore, the texture is gritty and is formed by the
disintegration and weathering of rocks such as limestone, granite, quartz and
shale. Is also easier to cultivate it if it is rich in organic materials but
then it allows drainage more than needed. This results in over drainage and
dehydration of the plant in summer. It warms very fast in the spring season.
Grouting on the other hand is a
process whereby stabilizes either in the form of suspension or solution is
injected into sub surface soil.
Sandy soil is the largest
particle in the soil when you rub it, if feels rough. This is because it has
sharp edges and it does not hold many nutrients.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF
The development and history of
compaction grouting over the last 30-40 years as been established by many
distinguished researcher, design engineer and design contractor. Many technical
papers are been published dealing physically with the issues surround
compaction grouting design such as: “compaction grouting, 1973”, “planning and
performing compaction grouting” 1974. These and other important reference are
the main stream basis of knowledge for the highly specialize engineering and
construction technique know as compaction grouting.
The compaction grout method as
some unique features which allow distinct advantages over other remedial method
of geo-technical construction. In many distances growth is the only viable
solution. Some of the advantages include:
Economic: Many time compaction
grouting is the only feasible solution to foundation settlement problems, other
than demolishing the structure and re-building with expensive deep foundation
Minimal disturbance: During the
grouting operation, destructure may remain occupied and in service.
Minimal risk: Compaction
grouting offers minimal risk of catastrophic structural failure while
Other are: Minimal geotechnical
exploration, provide greater support for structures, cost factor e.t.c.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the nature of the
sandy soil particles.
2. To determine the degree of the
sandy soil compatibility.
3. To carry out the improvement of
sandy soil through grouting.
4. To carryout some laboratory
test on sandy soil such as compaction test California bearing ration (CBR)
test, atterberg LIMIT test, liquid limit test, Plastic limit test, sieve
analysis test in comparing the effectiveness of grouting system.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research is focused on the
quality and improvement of bearing capacity of sandy soil by grouting.
1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The limitations of this study
TIME FACTOR: Limited time that does not
permit to carryout many practical.
AREA OF STUDY: This project is limited the
technical study of sandy soil properties.