1.0 This chapter introduces
what solid wastes are all about including its quality and effects on
underground water. Solid wastes
commonly known as trashes or garbages are wastes consisting of everyday items
we consume and discard.
It predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers,
product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential,
commercial, institutional and industrial resources.
While underground water is the water found beneath the soil. Underground water occurs as a result of rain
fall entering into the soil surface. It may also occur as a result of
percolation from surface water into the soil. When rain falls to the ground,
the water does stop, some flow along the
surface to the streams or lakes,
while some are used by plants, some
evaporate and return to the atmosphere while some sink into the ground . When
pouring a glass of water into a pile of sand, it is obvious that the water will
move into the space between particles of sand. Scientifically, groundwater is
found in the cracks and spaces in the soil, sand and rock.
It moves slowly through layers of soil, sand and rock called
aquifers. Aquifers typically consist of gravel, sand, stone or fractured rock,
like lime stone. These particles are permeable because the large connected
spaces that allow water to flow through the speed at which ground water flows
depends on the size of spaces in the soil or rock and how well the spaces are
connected. The area where water full aquifer is called the saturated zone (or
The top of the zone is called the water table. The water table may
be located either a meter below the ground surface or it consists of thirty meter
down . Groundwater can be found almost everywhere. The water table may be deep
or shallow and may rise or fall depending on many factors.
Heavy rains or melting snow can cause the water table to rise or
heavy pumbing groundwater supplies may cause the water table to fall. Water in
aquifers is brought to the surface naturally through spring can or be
discharged into lakes or streams. Groundwater can also be extracted well
drilled into aquifers. A well is a pipe in the ground that fuse with groundwater.
The water can be brought to the surface by a pump. Some wells called artesian
wells, do not need a pump because of natural pressure that forces water up and
out of the well. Groundwater supplies are replenished or recharged by rain and
snow melt. In some areas of the world, people face serious shortages of water
because groundwater is used faster than it is naturally replenished or
recharged. If ground becomes polluted, it will no longer be safe to drink. Groundwater
is used for drinking water by more than 50% of the people. In the United
States including almost everyone who lives in rural areas it is important for
all of us to learn how to protect our
groundwater because of its importance as a source of water for drinking
In other areas groundwater is polluted by human activities, in
areas where material above the aquifer is permeable, pollutant can be easily
sunk into the groundwater. Ground-water can be polluted by landfills, septic
tanks, leaking underground gas tanks, and from over use of residual single and
multi-dwellings, food wastes, wood, papers, cardboards, textile leather,
yardwastes, wood, glass, metals, ashes, special wastes(e.g bulky items, tyres)
and household are hazardous wastes. Industrial light and heavy manufacturing, fabrications,
power and chemicals and plants, house keeping wastes, packaging, food wastes,
construction and demolition materials, ashes are specials wastes.
In other words wastes from hotels, restaurants, markets, office
building( paper, card board, food, plastic, glass metals), institutional
schools, hospitals, prisons, government centres, heavy and light manufacturing
refineries, chemical plant, mineral extraction, industrial scrap materials,
municipal services, street cleaning , land scraping, parks bleaching,
recreational areas, water and wastes water management plant contribute
immensely to the contamination of groundwater and they are the most common sources of wastes
generation. It is noted that solid wastes have a great effect on the quality of
underground water as a result of percolation, infilteration, leachate and
dis-integration of wastes material by the action of rainfall into the
PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
The problem of solid wastes and its effect on the quality of
underground water is now the focus of attention all over the world. The problem of waste generation in the
country in the recent past had been quite tremendous, necessitating the need
for this project.
In fact, the presence of wastes scattered all over cities and
towns and even in our institutions of higher learning is a threat to health and
embarrassment to the pleasant standard expected of these areas. The menace of
solid waste generation is most prominent in developed and industrialized
countries; this is because complexity of generated waste is directly
proportional to development in science and technology. Construction and
operation of land filling material, recovery system, and incineration systems have
become very costly.
It is noteworthy that the urban populace generates more wastes
than the rural areas. This is because of the various forms of commercial and
industrial activities going on in cities and which have brought an increase in
the volume and diversity of waste generated daily in the country. These have some great effects on underground
water consumption (borehole and well).
It is therefore believed that in consumption of underground water
such as bore hole and well water, certain tests are needed to be carried out
before consumption in regulation with the principles of World Health
Organization. These tests are:
Total caliform test
III. Test for nitrate
IV. Aerobic and
sulphate reducing bacteria.
These tests are the most important
tests carried out to know the physical, chemical and biological effects of
solid wastes on underground water before it could be suitable for consumption.
In additional, wastes are such items which people are required to discard. It
can be defined as unavoidable material resulting from an activity which has no
immediate economic demand and must be disposed off .Items such as household
rubbish, sewage sludge, waste from manufacturing can give to a large variety of
different wastes from different sources. Wastes are generated everyday in all
parts of the world (Oluwande 1973). This mainly made up of waste coming from
household , commercial activities ( e.g shops, restaurant, hospital), industry
(e.g pharmaceutical companies, clothes manufacturers e.t.c), agriculture
(slurry) construction and demolition projects, mining and quarrying activities
and from the generation of energy . With such vast quantities of wastes being
produced, It is of vital importance that it is managed in such a way that does
not cause any harm to either human health or to the environment.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
(i) To know the physical, chemical and biological effect of solid wastes
on underground water and determine the amount of wastes within the study areas.
(ii) To determine whether the water
pollutions have dangerous effect on the people and animals in the areas of
1. To prevent all individuals,
relevant organizations, researchers from drinking underground water that is
very closed to dumping areas in order to avoid deadly diseases.
2. To inform the people on the hazard
and result of wastes on their health from drinking underground water especially
those that are very close to the dumping areas in other to prevent untimely
3. To educate people on the negative
effects of water pollution on health
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In Osun State, South West of Nigeria
with thirty local governments, only one town was explored by the researcher.
The town is Ikirun in Ifelodun local government.
Ikirun is centrally located in Osun
north east division of Osun State with latitude 7 degree, 50 feet north of
equator and longtitude 4 degree, 40 feet east of GreenWich meridian .It is bounded on the
north by Inisa town in Odo-Oti local government area, on the south by Osogbo
the Osun State capital to the east by Iragbiji town in Boripe local government,
and to the West by Eko-Ende town also in Ifelodun local government.
In this town
different wells were examined both in dry season and rainy season especially
those that are very close to the dumping areas. The difficulty encountered
during the course of this project was my inabilities to perform some tests
which are very expensive. This was due to the fact that it required initial fund to carry them out. Examples
of such tests are aerobic and sulphate
reducing bacteria test e.t.c.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are some certain tests which
should be performed, these are , Aerobic Test, Pathogen Screen Test, etc. But due
to the time factor, money and some facilities which are needed but are not
present at hand, these tests could not be carried by the researcher.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. PERCOLATION: Percolation can be
defined as the slow passage of a liquid through a filtrating medium. It is also
known as the process of water seepage through the soil.
2. INFILTRATION: The process by which
water on the ground surface enters the soil
3. LEACHATE: It is any liquid that in
passing through matter, extracts, solutes, suspended solids or other
components, of the material through which it has passed.
4. HAZARDOUS WASTES: These are wastes
that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or environments
5. AQUIFERS: These are underground
layers of porous rocks or sand that allow the movement of water between layers
of non-porous rocks (sand stone, gravel or fractured lime stone or granite).
6. WASTE PREVENTION: It is the method of eliminating waste at
source and reducing the demand on
natural or origin resources.
7. WASTE RE-USE: It is the method of using a waste product from one process as
a raw material to form another.
8. WASTE RECYCLES: This is the method of
breaking down the waste items into raw material.