1.1 Background of the study
Despite best efforts in Measuring Environmental Impact, industries continue to generate and discharge
enormous amounts of wastes that pollute the natural environment and impose
damages on households and other enterprises. Economists call these damages
externalities because their costs typically fall not on the firms that
discharge the wastes but on those that suffer the damages. Consequently,
accounting systems don't ascribe these costs to their sources or even record
them systematically (Ashford, Ayers and Stone,2000).
however, companies are being forced to internalize these environmental costs,
either through stricter environmental regulations or through liability for
damages caused to others. Accurate measurement of a company's true
environment-related costs now offers a wide range of benefits: It provides
management with a benchmark for tracking performance relative to peers or its
own past performance. It can also serve as an external benchmark for investors
concerned about the environmental performance of companies as well as their
work therefore examines environmental cost measurement and its effects on
investment return in United Cement company, Calabar. This becomes important,
because it can serve as a measure of a company's environmental exposure and the
financial risk originating in its environmental performance. True cost
estimates the firm's emissions and wastes by using the firm's own information sources
or others, then assigns each category of emissions a monetary value by
multiplying its physical quantity by a notional price based on economic
estimates of the marginal damages of an additional ton of emissions (Caves, Christensen, and Diewert
1.2 Statement of the problem
In order to see if a
company is viable as a going concern, environmental costs are vital to know for
the long-run. The benefits to preserve the environment in terms of investment
returns may be surprising. One of the growing global concerns is the issue of
lack of awareness among so many business leaders. A private sector solution may
be the best solution on a global scale. Other growing issues of concern relates
to inability of companies to measure their cost of waste and land-use change.
Ecosystems are vital to the performance of most companies, and integrating the
true costs of extracting these services could significantly impact bottom lines
in the future.
Environmental costs are not
always easily seen, but in taking a closer look, the results are scary. It is
on this note that have prompted this research which focused on “environmental
cost measurement and it effect on investment returns in United Cement Company
Objectives of the study
The main objective of this
study is environmental cost measurement and it effect on investment returns in
United Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar.
The specific objectives of
the study include;
To determine the benefits of preserving the environment in
terms of investment returns in United Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar.
To examine the effect
of cost of waste measurement and land-use change on company’s viability in
United Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar.
To evaluate the importance of Ecosystems preservation to the performance of company’s in United
Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar.
To determine the true costs of environmental impact on
company’s future investments in United
Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar.
To what extent does preserving the environment benefit
investment returns in United Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar?
To what extent does cost of waste measurement and land-use
change affect company’s viability in United Cement Company (UNICEM)
How does Ecosystems preservation impact on the company’s
performance in United Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar?
To what extent does true costs of environmental impact
affect company’s future investments in United Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar?
There is no significant relationship between preserving the
environment and investment returns in United Cement Company (UNICEM)
There is no significant relationship between cost of waste
measurement, land-use change and company’s viability in United Cement Company
There is no significant relationship between Ecosystems preservation and company’s performance in
United Cement Company (UNICEM) Calabar
There is no significant relationship between costs of
environmental impact and company’s
future investments in United Cement
Company (UNICEM) Calabar
Scope of the research area
the scope of the study focuses on
environmental cost measurement and its effect on investment returns, the study
area for this research will be narrowed down to United Cement Company, Calabar.
This company will be taken into consideration because of its uniqueness as a
manufacturing company that emits mush waste into the environment and also
because of its easy accessible nature.
Significance of the study
This study will be of immense benefits to oil exploring companies, mining
industries, manufacturing industries and construction industries to enable them
determine adequate measures in measuring the cost of their environmental waste
and also understanding the influence its has on future investments. The study
when conducted will be of significance to the ministry of environment in both
state and federal levels to enable them make policies that will guide and
direct the operations of manufacturing, minning and oil exploring companies.
The research will equally be significant
because it would provide answers to the effect of environmental cost
measurement on investment returns in the financial industry as a whole and also
valuable tool for students, academician, institutions and individuals that
wants to know more about environmental cost measurement.
of the study
For the researcher to
achieve the objectives of the study the research was organized into following
Chapters in order to relate each one of them to the main study
Chapter one: This chapter presents an introduction and
background on the subject matter and as well highlight a problem statement,
objectives of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, scope of the
study, significance, definition of term and historical background of the study
Chapter two: This chapter reviewed related works from
different scholars and authors pertaining to the subject matter.
Chapter three: This chapter presents the methodology used in
the research. Hence the following headings were taken into consideration, the
design, population, sample size, method of data collection instrumentation,
model specification etc
Chapter four: the chapter highlighted data presentation,
analysis and discussion of findings
Chapter five: This chapter presents the summary, conclusion
and recommendations made in the study as well make necessary suggestions for
further studies. It also displayed the list of referenced authors and closes
Operational definition of
Cost: Is the value of money that has been used up to
produce something, and hence is not available for use anymore
Measurement: Is finding a number that
shows the size or amount of something.
the concept of an investment of some resource yielding
a benefit to the investor.
Environmental cost: This is expenditures incurred to
prevent, contain, or remove environmental contamination.
Historical Background of the Organization
under study: United cement company (UNICEM) limited
The United Cement Company
of Nigeria Ltd (UNICEM) is formed as a private limited liability company under
Nigerian law with registered office in Nigeria by Holcim Trading S.A. and Flour
Mills of Nigeria Plc. In Nigeria, the name, UNICEM stands for advanced
technology, quality product and the leading supplier of cement in the
South-South and South-East regions. As the second largest cement plant in
Nigeria, their core activities are the manufacture and sale of Ordinary
UNICEM has its head office
based in Calabar and all cement manufacturing operations have been consolidated
at the 2.5million tons per annum Mfamosing plant, north-east of Calabar.
Their mission statement
indicates a strive to be one of the most socially responsible cement companies in
Nigeria. In achieving this they operate on the basis of best practices in
accordance with shareholder, lender and local Nigerian legal and regulatory
requirements so far as corporate governance, good corporate citizenship and
UNICEM acquired the assets
of Calcemco, a state owned cement company sold by the Nigerian Government after
liquidation. The CALCEMCO plant was planned and constructed by Salzgitter
Industriebau GmbH (SEG); Germany in the 1970’s to meet the high demand for
cement in Nigeria (UNICEM Bulletin, 2006).