PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS


PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS

Type: Project Materials | Format: Ms Word | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 63 Pages | Chapters: 1-5 chapters | Price: ₦ 3,000.00

1,846 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@allprojectmaterials.com
Excellent and professional research project topics and materials website. All the research tools, journals, seminars, essays, article, books, term papers, softwares and project materials for your research guide and final year projects are available here.

1.1   Background study

     Packagingvusing plasticvmaterialsvhas rapidly increasedvin recent times. Its vusevcovers a wide area of applicationvfromvautomobile parts, food, drinks, water, snacks, cloths, fresh and sea foods, vfarm products, vmedicals and pharmaceuticals, to mention but a few. The use of such bombasticvamount of schematicvplastics and itsvadvantage overvother packaging materialsvis due tovits diversevandvadvancevpropertiesvofvlongevity.Thevproperties include resistance tovchemicalvreaction, vthermal strength, mechanical and its tensile strength, vespeciallyvenzymaticvreactions (Ezeoha and Ezenwanne, 2013.).

     For example it willvtake avveryvlongvtimevsay avhundredvyears to degradevjustva piece of plastic film (polyethene) used to package snacks (gala) at standard environmental conditions. vBasically, two challenges have been cited with the of conventional polyethene usevits  dependence  on vpetroleum  and  the  problem vof  waste  disposal.  Most  of  today’s  conventionalvsynthetic  polymers vare  producedvfromvpetrochemicals  that vare  not  biodegradable.  Thesevstable vpolymers  are  a  significant vsourcevof venvironmental  pollution, vharming vorganic  naturevwhen vthey  are  dispersedvin  thevenvironment, changes thevcarbon dioxide cycle, problemvassociatedvwith increasedvtoxic emission. The sources of synthetic polymersvsuch as fossilvfuel and gas arevnow stimulated by environmental concerns. Scientists arevresearchingvdifferentvmethods ofvimprovingvplastics thatvcanvbevusedvmorevefficientlyvsuchvthat they could be recycled, vreused and to possiblyvdegradevafter use.

      Alternationvisvtowardsvgreenervagriculturalvsources,   vwhich valsovwouldvlead   vto    the    reduction of CO2 emissions (Narayan, 2001). According to the Biodegradable    ProductsvInstitutev (BPI), avbiodegradable plastics isvone in which degradation    results from    the vactionvofvnaturallyvoccurring   vmicro-organismsvsuch as bacteria, vfungi or algae. Degradablevplastics are classified byvAmericanvSociety forvTesting and Materials    (ASTM) into four these are:-

(1) Photodegradablevplastics: Degradation of the plastic results from natural daylight.            

 (2) Oxidativevdegradable plastics: A degradation of plastics as a result of oxidation.

(3) hydrolytically degradable plastics: - The degradability resultsvfromvhydrolysis, vand

 (4) BiodegradablevPlastics: - Degradablevplastics invwhich there isvbreakdown of long chain polymervmoleculevinto smaller or shorter lengths. It undergoes oxidationvwhich is triggered by heat, ultraviolent light (UVlight), and mechanical stress. Itvoccurs in thevpresencevof moisture and actions from naturallyvoccurringvmicroorganismsvsuch asvbacterial, fungi and algae. (ASTM Standards, 1998)

             Thevvariousvdegradablevplastics definitions classified above offers the onlyvproducts whichvarevnaturallyvdegradable. Starch isvbeenvdiscoveredvamongst all biopolymers as a high potentialvmaterial for biodegrablevfilms. Starchvconsists of two types of polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectinvdepending on the sucrose (10-20%) amylase and (80-90%) amylopectin. The hydrophlicity ofvstarch canvbe used tovincrease the biodegrability of starch-basedvplastics. Amylosevis avlinearvmolecule with a fewvbranches, whereasvamylopectinvis avhighlyvbranchedvmolecule. Therefore, vamylosevcontentvis an importantvfactor to biodegrable plastic filmvstrength. Branchedvstructure of amylopectin generallyvleads to filmvwith lowvmechanical properties. To improve thevflexibilityvof plastics, plasticizers arevadded tovreduce internalvhydrogen bondvbetweenvpolymer chainsvwhile increasing molecular space. The mostvcommonly used starchvplasticizers are polyols, sorbitol and glycerol. Thevkey emphasisvin biodegrability is thatvbiopolymer materialsvbreakdownvintovsmaller compounds, either chemically or byvorganisms sooner than synthetic plastics (Bastioli, 2005.). Biodegradablevpackagingvmaterials are materials that degrades back tovthe earth surfacevharmlessly when disposed. This help largely in reducingvthe amount of packaging materialsvthat goes back into landfills andvfurthermore, saves energy, as the biodegrable route requires little or novexternal source of energy its endothermic.

 Biodegrable polymervsources are fromvreplaceable agriculturalvfeed socks, vanimal sources, vmarinevfoodvprocessingvindustriesvwaste, or microbial sources. In addition to replenshiable raw agricultural ingredients, biodegrable materials breakdownvinto environmental friendlyvproducts such; as carbon dioxide, vwater and quality compost. 

      Biodegradationvtakesvplace in two-steps: vdegradation/defragmentationvinitiated by heat, moisture, or microbial enzymes, andvsecond step – biodegradation – where the shorter carbonvchains passvthrough the cellvwalls of the microbesvand are used as anvenergy source. Biodegrable plastics are made from cellulose-based starchvand has been in existence for decades, with first exhibitionvof a cellulose-basedvstarch (which initiated thevbiodegradable plasticvindustry in 1862). Cellophanevisvthevmost cellulose-basedvbiopolymer. vStarch-based biopolymer, which swellvandvdeformvwhen exposedvtovmoisture, include amylose, hydroxyalkanote (PHA), polyhydroxybuterate (PHB), and avcopolymer of PhB and valeric acid (PhB/V). These are made from lactic acid formed fromvmicrobial fermentation of starch derivatives, polylactide does not degrade when exposed tovmoisture (Auras.et al, 2007) PHA, PHB, andvPHB/V are formedvby bacterial actionsvonvstarch (Krochta, 1997). In addition, biodegrable films can also bevproduce from chitosan, vwhich isvderivedvfromvchitin of crustacean and insectvexoskeletons. Chitin is a biopolymervsimilar tovcellulose structure. Therevare variousvwaysvstarchvcan be used for biodegrable polymervproduction; 

  1. Starchvcompostvcontainingvmore than half byvmass of thevplasticizers.
  2.  Biodegrable polymers preparationvusing thevextrusion process of mixtures of granularvstarch.
  3.  Compositionvof starchvwith othervplastics of little quantityvof agricultural based material to enhance the biodegrability of conventional synthetic polymer.

               Synthetic polymers can alsovbe madevpartially degradablevbyvblending with biopolymers, vincorporating biodegrable components such as starch, or by adding bioactive compounds. vThe bio compoundsvare degradedvto break thevpolymervinto smaller chains. Bioactivevcompounds work through diverse mechanisms. For example, theyvmay be mixed with swelling agents tovincrease thevmolecular structure ofvthe plastic whichvupon exposure tovmoisture vallow the bioactivevcompounds to breakdownvthe plastics.

 

1.2 Problem statement

      Therevisvbasically, vtwo harmsvconnected to the wide applicationvof synthetic polymer plastics for packaging sincevits inventionvin the 1930s: They arevtotalvreliance on petrochemicalvproduct as itsvmain feedvstockvand the problemvof wastevdisposal. Most of today’s conventional synthetic polymers arevproduced from petrochemicalsvandvare not biodegradable. Thesevstable polymers are avsignificant source ofvenvironmentalvpollution, harmfulvtovorganicvnaturevwhen they are dispersed in the environment. The rawvmaterials such as fossil fuelvand gasvcould be replaced by greenervagriculturalvsources, which contributevto the reductionvof Co2vemissions (Narayan, 2001). Basedvon the abovevit becomes ofvvalue to producevplastics that are biodegradable,vin excess of the past few years syntheticvpolymer usersvhave been introducingvvarious forms ofvbiodegradablevplastics. Thevalternative rawvmaterialsvare nowvfrom plants products, the main amongvmanyvothers is cornvstarch.

 

1.3Justification

     Biovplasticsvwere too expensive for considerationvof replacementvfor petroleumvbased plastics. The lowervtemperature needed for the production of bio plastics and the more sTable supply of biomass combined withvthevincreasing cost of crude oil make bio plastics prices morevcompetitivevwithvregular plastics. Starch isvinexpensivevand abundancevin nature, Nigeriavbeing the world largestvproducer of cassava (FAO, 2009) and being a root crop that canvbe grown in every part of the nation, Starchvis totally biodegradable in a wide range of environmentsvand can be usedvin the developmentvof biodegrable packaging products for variousvmarket uses. Incineration of starch product is a way of recycling, the atmosphericvCO2 trapped by starch-producingvplant duringvgrowth, thusvclosing the biological carbonvcycle (Ceredavet al).

 

1.4  Aimvandvobjectives

     The aimvof thisvresearch is to produce biodegrable plastic films from cassava starch used in food packaging, using various additives and plasticizers. This will be achieved via the following objectives.

  1. Extraction of starch from fresh cassava.
  2. Improving the extracted starch with addition of plasticizers and various additives,
  3.  Determining the biodegrability and tensile strength of the produced biodegradable products and comparing with that of synthetic polyethene.
  4.  Testing for the validity of the produced biodegradable film.

1.5 Scope of study

The scope of theses work is strictly limited to:

                               I.            Extraction of starch from cassava.

                            II.            Physical and chemical properties of plasticizers and additives in resumption.

                            III.             Cost estimation.

                         IV.            Biodegrability test, and the characterization of the produced film.

PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS

Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@allprojectmaterials.com with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : BIO-CHEMISTRY
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 63 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

Share Links

Download Post
Download Post

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

Do you need a writer for your academic work?

Reviews:
A Review on production of biodegrable plastic films from cassava starch used in food packaging, using various additives and plasticizers, production, biodegrable, plastic project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Packagingvusing plasticvmaterialsvhas rapidly increasedvin recent times. Its vusevcovers a wide area of applicationvfromvautomobile parts, food, drinks, water, snacks, cloths, fresh and sea foods, vfarm products, vmedicals and pharmaceuticals, to mention but a few. The use of such bombasticvamount of schematicvplastics and itsvadvantage overvother packaging materialsvis due tovits diversevandvadvancevpropertiesvofvlongevity.Thevproperties include resistance tovchemicalvreaction, vthermal strength, mechanical and its tensile strength, vespeciallyvenzymaticvreactions (Ezeoha and Ezenwanne, 2013.)... bio-chemistry project topics

PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS