Twenty samples of frozen chicken from
five different sellers were analyzed to determine their bacteriological
load; the samples were collected from Gwagwalada market. All the frozen
chicken samples from the five sellers examined were contaminated with
some bacterial species namely, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli,
Staphyloccus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris,
Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total bacteria counts for all the chicken examined from the different sellers was in the range of 0.7 × 102
cfu/ml to 8.5 × 102 cfu/ml and the coliform counts obtained for all the chicken samples ranged from 0.1 × 102 cfu/ml to 3.2 × 102
cfu/ml. These finding suggest that most of the frozen chicken parts
stored in the open market may constitute sources of bacterial food
poisoning consequently public health hazard.
The first consumer right is to have a
product of good quality and not constituting any health hazard. Poultry
meat products are highly desirable, palatable, digestible and nutritious
for all ages. Poultry meat is comprised of about 20–23% protein, other
are water and fat, phosphorus, iron and vitamins. Comminuted products,
such as frankfurters, bologna and sausages typically contain about
17–20% protein, 0–20% fat, and 60–80% water (Smith, 2001).Quality
products are those that meet some need or expectation of consumers and
are safe and wholesome as well. (Sahooet al., 1996).The
microbiological safety and quality of poultry meat are equally important
to producers, retailers and consumers. Two quite different groups of
microorganisms are relevant: on the one hand certain foodborne
pathogens, and, on the other, organisms that are generally harmless to
human health, but, being psychrotrophic, are able to multiply on the
product during chill storage. Spoilage results mainly from off- odour
development, and product shelf-life is determined both by the number of
spoilage organisms present initially and the temperature history of the
product at all stages of production and subsequent storage and handling
(Pooni and Mead, 1984). For chill- stored poultry, Viehweget al.
(1989) demonstrated that virtually all the odorous substances found at
spoilage could be attributed to microbial growth and metabolism.
Contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens remains an
important public health issue, because it can lead to illness if there
are malpractices in handling, cooking or post-cooking storage of the
Fresh (uncooked) foods such as chicken
carries natural microflora that may contain organisms potentially
harmful to humans. The microbial flora of table poultry is largely
confined to the skin surface or visceral cavity. Isolates from poultry
and poultry products could include members of the following general Enterobacter,
Alcaligenes, Escherichia,Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus,
Proteus,Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Corynebacteriumand Salmonella. (Frazier and Westhoff,1988).
Contamination of the skin and lining of
the body cavity occurs during washing, plucking and evisceration.
Bacterial numbers vary considerably on the surface of chickens. This
variation however is greater between birds than is between different
areas of the same birds. The type of organisms isolated depends upon
where the samples were taken and upon the stage of processing (Frazier
and Westhoff, 1988). Fresh poultry products like meat are known to
undergo deterioration due to microbial action, chemical and physical
changes. In normal handling and storage of poultry meat, this
deterioration changes are attributed to micro biological contamination
Poultry and poultry products are
frequently contaminated with several types of microorganisms. This
problem is even more severe under temperature-abused conditions as well
as improper or inefficient refrigeration commonly observed in retail
chicken sold in open markets. Poultry can be kept in good condition for
months if freezing is prompt and rapid and the storage temperature is
low enough. Poultry should freeze fast enough to retain most of the
natural bloom or external appearance of a freshly dressed fowl. The
storage temperature should be below 17.8oC and the relative humidity above 95 percent to reduce surface drying. Most poultry is sharp-frozen at about 29oC
or less in circulating air or on a moving belt in a freezing tunnel.
Other spoilage micro-organisms are introduced into the poultry products
by the workmen during cutting and evisceration, through water, and air
in the dressing, cooling and cutting room environment (Allenet al.,
2000). However, various methods are used in the preservation of these
poultry products in order to reduce the incidence of these organisms.
These include asepsis, use of heat, use of low temperature, chilling,
freezing, preservatives such as acetic, adipic, succinic etc. at pH 2.5
and use irradiation (Frazier and Westhoff, 1988). Despite these methods
of preservation, contamination of poultry products remains the order of
the day before it gets to the final consumer.
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Various bacteria are associated with poultry products; this project is aimed at achieving the following objectives:
i. To isolate the various
microbial isolates associated with frozen chicken purchased from
different sellers in Gwagwalada market.
ii. To characterize and identify these micro-organisms.
iii. To speculate on the significance of these isolates.
iv. To compare the level of contamination of the samples (frozen chicken) collected from different parts of the market.
A Research proposal for bacteriological quality of frozen chicken sold in gwagwalada market:
Reviews: A Review on bacteriological quality of frozen chicken sold in gwagwalada market, bacteriological, quality, frozen project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Twenty samples of frozen chicken from five different sellers were analyzed to determine their bacteriological load; the samples were collected from Gwagwalada market. All the frozen chicken samples from the five sellers examined were contaminated with some bacterial species namely, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphyloccus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total bacteria counts for all the chicken examined from the different sellers was in the range of 0.7 × 102.. bio-chemistry project topics
BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FROZEN CHICKEN SOLD IN GWAGWALADA MARKET