1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Plants have formed the basis of
traditional medicine system which has been used for thousands of years.
Traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge
and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines,
spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly
or in combination to treat or to diagnose and prevent illnesses or
maintain well being (World Health Organization, 2003). In developing
countries where orthodox medicines are quite expensive, traditional
medicine is widely practiced thus, screening for antimicrobial active
compounds from ethno medicinal plants is vital so as to ascertain
genuine active plants and active compounds. Ultimately, these
phytochemicals will find their way into the arsenal of antimicrobial
drugs prescribed by physicians (Cowan, 1999). Plants have been one of
the main sources of medicaments either in the form of traditional
preparations or pure active principles since the dawn of the human
civilization. The utilization of plant based drugs in the world is
flourishing and ever increasing. India has a wealthy ancestry of science
on plant based drugs both for use in remedial and preventive medicine.
Charaka S amhita reports the use of nearly 2000 vegetable remedies
against various diseases. Nearly 60% of all pharmaceuticals are plant
based. 300000 plants have already been explored for their medicinal
properties. Every culture, including western culture has evolved
indigenous system of traditional healing. Traditional healing in
different cultures has a long history of ancestors creating primitive
medicine during their struggle against natural calamities and diseases.
Equally while searching for food; the ancient humans discovered that
some foods have specific properties of relieving or eliminating certain
diseases and maintaining good health. In recent years, secondary plant
metabolites have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal
agents. It is anticipated that phytochemicals with good antibacterial
activity will be used for the treatment of bacterial, fungal and viral
infections. During the last two decades, there has been a considerable
increase in the study and use of medicinal plants all over the world,
especially in advanced countries. There was also a tremendous increase
in the international trade and commercial exploitation of herbal
medicines over the counter labeled products. In some countries, herbal
medicines are still a central part of the medical system e.g. China,
Ethiopia, Argentina and Papua New Guinea
Chloris gayana kunth of the
family of poaceae and is commonly known as Rhode grass and it is mainly
use for grazing of animals and most people use it as vegetable when
cooking, As literature survey revealed that not much work had been
reported on Choris gayana kunth, in the present study, the leaf
portion of the plant was investigated for its pharmacognostical
properties. Preliminary photochemical out followed by the isolation and
characterization screening has been carried of chemical constituents
and the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the various extracts as
well as the isolated compounds were examined against microbes. In the
present study, an endeavour has been made to find out the antibacterial
and antifungal activity of various extracts obtained from the plant.
1.2 AIMS OF STUDY
ü To extract and characterize compounds responsible for this claim
ü This research is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Chloris gayana kunth used for the treatment of some illness caused by microorganism.
ü To analyze whether the plant extract has capability to control the growth of the microorganism.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- The objectives of this study include the following:
- Antimicrobial investigation of the plant extracts.
- Collection and precise botanical identification of the plant
- Determination of phytochemical ingredient contained in the plant
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THIS RESEARCH
The scope of this research work is aimed at evaluating Chloris gayana kunth
found in Agbarho in Ughelli North local government area of Delta State,
Nigeria. This will be done by evaluating the 3 systematical screening
of Chloris gayana kunth through
phytochemical screening, antimicrobial (antibacterial/antifungal
screening), so as to better understand their properties, safety and
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The choice of Chloris gayana kunth for
phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis is based on the plant’s
specialty and diverse use in the treatment of various illness amongst
the Agbarho people of Delta State and its environs. This study will also
aid with discovering other possible sources of producing anti-
1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW
Phytochemical are non-nutritive plant
chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. There
is growing interest in correlating the phytochemical constituents of a
medicinal plant with its pharmacological activity. Phytochemicals are
primary and secondary compounds. Chlorophyll, proteins and common sugars
are included in primary constituents and secondary compounds have
terpenoid, alkaloids and phenolic compounds. The secondary metabolites
of plants were found to be source of various phytochemicals that could
be directly used as intermediates for the production of new drugs.
The currently available screening
methods for the detection of antimicrobial activity of natural products
fall into three groups, including bio autographic, diffusion, and
1.6 DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
Chloris gayana kunth is a species of grass known by the common name Rhodes grass. It is native to Africa but it can be found throughout the tropical and subtropical world as a naturalized species.
It can grow in many types of habitat. It is also cultivated in some areas as a palatable graze for animals and a groundcover to reduce erosion and quickly re-vegetate denuded soil. It is tolerant of moderately saline and alkaline soils and irrigation.
This is a perennial grass which can
reach one half to nearly three meters in height and spreads
via stolon’s. It forms tufts and can spread into wide monotypic stands.
a single or double whorl of fingerlike racemes up to 15 centimeters
long. Each spikelet in the raceme is a few millimeters long and contains
one or two fertile florets and up to four sterile florets.