determination of bacteriocidal effect of garlic extract on staphylococcus
aureus causing skin and urinary tract infection (UTI) on some female patients
High vagina swab
(HVS) samples were collected randomly from selected number of patients who had
symptoms similar to that of Staphylococcus aureus activities.
The samples were inoculated on Macconkey agar and nutrient agar and incubated
at 370c for 24-48 hrs. Colonies that appeared pinkish in whitish
creamy and yellowish on nutrient agar were gram stained and examined
microscopically. Also, biochemical tests were carried out in order to
characterize the organism present in each positive sample 80% of the samples
examined were found to react positively to Staphylococcal infections.
It’s prevalence is more among the age range of 18 – 30 years. It is suggested
that government should encourage public health education on the potency of the
cheap and readily available antibacterial agent like garlic and it’s addition
to daily dietary which will act as a prop drug especially to women to reduce
the incidence of S. Aureus that causes skin and urinary tract
injection. Garlic extract has been proved to be an excellent cure to the
1.1 Aim and objectives
Statement of problem
Materials and method
3.1 Bacteriological culture
Collection and transport of specimens
Laboratory examination of H.V.S. Sample
Biocehmical characterization of isolates catalase
Procurement and extraction of garlic extract
Impregnation of thegarlic extract into the paper disc.
Sensitivity testing of garlic extract
identification of bacteria isolate
Biochemical test showing staphyloccoccus aureus
Sensitivity testing using garlic extract and three antibiotics
indicating their zone of inhibition.
Discussion, conclusion and recommendations
I The level of bacteria
according to age range
identification of bacteria isolate
III. Biochemical test carried
out to identify staphylococcus
IV Sensitivity testing using
garlic extract and three
V Table for minimum inhibitory
VI Bacteriocidal evaluation
of garlic extract
STRUCTURE OF ALLICIN
II Flow chart of garlic
III Flow chart of serial
IV Disc before incubation
V Disc after incubation
satirum commonly known as garlic is an odoriferous plant belonging to a
family lilacease. It is a small perennial herb with narrow flat leaves and
surrounded by membranous patches, it is grown mostly in Northern Nigeria. It
is used primarily for seasoning or spice and also for its medicinal property.
The plant contain a medicinal properly just like other plants such as aloes,
Indian liquorices, alligator pepper etc which are also found useful, although
the extend is not accurately recorded. The medicinal property of garlic is due
to its “sulphur” content which was believed to be responsible for it’s
medicinal value. Garlic as a medicinal plant has been widely used and found to
be effective on number of serious infections. Other plants like the ones
mentioned earlier also have their medicinal properly, some which is as a result
of the presence of ackloids, volatile oils, polyphenol and some related sulphur
compound contained in them. Similarly, some are found to be used as
vermifuge, stimulating carminative toxic and also as condiments and for
treatment of worm bites just like garlic.
diluted juice of the fresh bulb is used externally as a mild antiseptic and the
finely chopped cloves added to food act as an effective vermifuge. By the
distillation of the bulb, a volatile oil consisting mainly of daily disulphide
and allyl – prop disulphide is obtained. It is used to diminish cough in
chronic bronchitic. Meanwhile, in this project work, we shall be working on
garlic’s bacteriocidal effect on staphylococcus aureus. Garlic
is one of the best known natural plant that provide sulphur. Many of the
sulphur containing compounds in garlic such as dietlyl – disulphide, propienyl
methyl sulphide, allicin which stands as organic disulphide present in garlic
inactivates the amino acid. Cysteine and such reactions of the garlic
disulphide present in garlic may inhibit protein synthesis in microorganism.
This reaction may have contributed to the bacteriocidal effect of garlic on
bactenal cell. Garlic also contain a glycoside, vitamin B,C and D and
allisation I and II, the volatile sulphur oil which form part of a vermifugal
medicinal property. An antibiotic substance “allicin” which appear to be more
bacteriostatic than bactericidal has been isolated from the cloves. Barley
(1950). It has antibiotic effect on both gram positive and gram negative
bacteria. Example Salmonella typhinurium, staphylococcus
aureus, Bacillus Species, Eshericha Coli,
etc. (Shelef, 1980).
aureus is a predominant causative agent of skin and urinary tract infection
among men and women. Therefore, urinary tract infection is referred to as
infection affecting the urinary system comprising invasion of any of the tissues
that make up the tract, extending from the renal cortex to the urethral
meatus. Kunin, (1979). These diseases include cystitis – inflammation of
bladder, Urethiritis – information of the urethra. Also, skin infection is
referred to as infection affecting the skin. The organisms are present on the
whole skin or part of the skin surface including those in deeper parts of the
skin such as the ducts of sebaceous and sweat gland follicles.
aureus is a gram positive bacteria, coagulase-positive and a human
pathogen which live as a commensal in the anterior nares of over half the
normal population. It may also colonize the skin. It is the most common cause
of acute pyogenic (pus-producing)) infection in man. It has a marked predilection
for the skin and surface structures and causes boils, carbunches, pustules,
styles, impetigo (often in association with streptococcus pyogenes), pemphigus
neonatorum, and sticky eyes in babies. Acute osteomyelitis in children and
mastitis in lactating mothers. It is the commonest cause of infection of
wounds and bums. Other staphylococcal species are
coagulase-negative (Jackson, M.H. CRAWFORD, J.F, MORIS, G. and SMITH P.G. 1989)
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
To assess the
bacteriocidal property of garlic as alternative to synthetic antibiotics
To know the
concentration of garlic extract that will be effective on the pathogen.
HO:- Garlic extract has an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus
aureus isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI) among women.
HIL:- Garlic extract does not have an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus
aureus isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI)
HII: High concentration of garlic extract is needed an inhibitory
effect on Staphylococcus aureus UTI among women.
- This project work will be limited on only Staphylococcus
aureus causing urinary tract infection among women
- Due to time and financial factors, sample
and materials collection were limited to Enugu metropolis.
- It is also limited to only the efficacy of
garlic extract and the concentration that yield the highest efficacy.
This work did not
go further to determine the normal dose (potency) that will be taken in order
to avoid adverse effect in hypersensitivity reactions.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
(drug) lose their efficacy after a period of time.
drug by opportunistic micro organisms during processing.