This project work is aimed at examination of jollof
rice served in hotels for pathogenic organisms and to find out possible
pathogenic organisms in the food. Samples were collected from the hotels and
were brought to the laboratory for analysis. The sample were homogenized and
serial dilution of the sample was made out using 5ml sterile pipette and test
tubes. The dilution were the cultured on different media, macconkey agar, and
Nutrient agar, discrete bacteria colonies were observed and each colony was gram stained, the bacteria
isolation were staphylococcus aureus, bacillus, Escherichia coli, these micro
organism isolated are pathogenic and are toxin when ingested in contamination
Table of content
Background of the study
Aim and objective
Significance of study
Scope of study
Limitation of study
Composition of rice and its requirement
Source of contamination
Pathogenic bacterial organism that are responsible
for contamination of Jollof rice
Some micro organism responsible for Jollof rice
Factors that influence microbiological activity of
Prevention of food pathogenic organisms
Material and methods
Media used and sterilization method
Isolation methods n
The serial dilution technique
Plating and incubation
The intention of food safely is to prevent food
poisoning (the transmission of disease through food and to maintain the who
lesomeness of the food product through all stages of processing, until it is
finally extern. No one doubts the importance of food in our lives. All active
living organisms must have a constant serviced of energy this
energy may be supplied by materials a cell or organism has stored internally
(e.g our fat or carbohydrate) or it may come from an
external source in the environment food (Nutrition) supplies two major
component of life, ENERGY and the chemical
building blood of life, (Bor).
Energy is required for the various enzymatic
reaction that require an input of energy for the reaction, the catalyze for
example the movement of the muscles on our legs during a race or in their
intestine as we digest our intest meal on to draw air into lungs for breathing
all requires energy.
supplies the structural material required for living organisms to make new
macromolecules for repair of damage structure
or for new construction such as the manufacturing of off springs,. Apart
from it vital function of substaing life, food is referred to as labours of
pathogenic organisms, if not prepared in
a tidy and clean environment. This has been recognized as a problem in some
restinants in Enugu, concerned with providing proper food for consumers.
exist in two major categories. INTOXICATIONS –INFECTION. Intoxication is
a result of ingesting toxins produced by microbes that have grown on the food
prior to it being eaten. Infection is the result of the food serving as a
forniute that carries an infection pathogen deep into the juicy recesses of a
body where it is able to gain a foot . generally food pathogenic organism
results from contamination of food and the subsequent growth of food pathogenic
Food poisoning out breaks are of recognized by the
sudden on set of illness with a shout period of time among many individual who have eaten
or drunk one or more food (Jollodf rice) in common. Single cases are difficult
to identify unless in botulism for example there are distinct symptom. Food
pathogenic organism may be one of the most common cause of actuate illness, yet
cases and difficult to identify vnlesssas in Botulision for example
There are distant Symptom. Food pathogenic organism
may be one of the most common causes of acute illness. Yet cases and outbreaks
are generally under recognized and under-requited. The number of bacterial present : food
(jolloff rice) may be used to determined whether or not the food (jolloff rice
) has been handled correctly. Sources, Vehicles and Reuters of continuations
Some disease that are spread by bacteria that enters
the body in food (jolloff rice) can multiply at an amazing rate when they are
provided with warmth and moisture, (especially at room temperature) Our food
can become an ideal home for then. Clean food (jolloff rice ) can be contaminated
by bacterial from four main sources.
* The people
present in the workplace and their clothing.
other food that is already
Dirty kitchen or work premises
Insect and vermin.
Some time, harmful bacterial pass directly from the source of
high risk food, but usually they rely on other things to transfer them
to food. These things are called vehicles. Ihekoronye A. I. And Ngoddy P.O
contamination using an intermediate
vehicle is the most common e.g the movement of bateria from the intestine of a food
handler to food via their hands after using the toilet. Where
contamination is via for example a
culting board, this is known is cross
contamination, the path that
bacteria use to more from the sources to the food is know is the Route.
The privation of pathogenic organism in food, in
most cases of food poisoning chain of events takes place and if we are to
reduce the incidence of illness, the chain must be broken.
different ways of breaking the food poisoning chain.
food (Jolloff rice) form contamination .
any bacteria present in food from multiply.
those bacteria that are present in the
food. The problem of food sanitation.
Inspecting all food and washing
fruit and vegetable before preparation.
Using good personal hygiene practice always.
Not coupling or sneezing over
or around the food.
Keeping covered as much as possible in destroy those bacteria with in
food (Jollof rice) An adequate cooking food ensuring that a minimum internal
cooking temperature of 800c is reacted. The heating processing such as
pasteurization sterilization or caming. A combination of a suitable temperature
and sufficient time is always required to destroy bacteria. The time and
temperature required depends on the particular organism (e.g spores of
clostridium perfringen are much more
heat resistant than salmonella bacteria).
In food safety programmes the hazard analysis
critical control point (HACC?), this is recommended that every food business
adopt the HACCP approach to identify all potential hazards and control them
before they result in problems.
In setting up a HACCP system will involve the following
Set up a HACCP team of those people who fully understand the product.
Draw up flow chart that define all stages in the preparation process,
from raw materials though to consumption or sale.
Identify all potential hazards (eg physical chemical bacterial) e.t.c
Identify the citial point consider preventive measures and decide which
are needed to eliminate or reduce
poetical hazard to acceptable levels.
AIM AND OBJECTIVE
This is to find out possible pathogenic organism
found in food (Jollof rice) sold to Top Rink Hotel and presidential hotel to
examine and identify micro organism (bacteria) associated with Jollof rice (food) sample collected from
these hotels in Enugu. And to determines the bacteria load growth.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY.
The signifcance of the work is to enable us improve
the hygiene of food (Jolloff rice) served and a good knowledge of a safe food
handling practice suitable light colour protection clothing to be worn and it,
will also enable us to be aware of
various pathogenic organism and the infection they transmit through food (Jollof rice). As result of this the
prevention of contamination of food is to be adlered to, this can be achieved
keeping high risk food at temperature that inhibits the growth of
bacterial (i.e our of the damager Zone.) food should be kept below 40c in a
refigecated unit an about 700c in a suitable warming unit.
Ensuing that during preparation
food is in the danger zone for as short a time as possible high risk food must
not be left sitting out at room temperature.
Using suitable preservation such as salt and sugar.
Using various packing method like gas flushing or vacuum packing.
of non- pathogenic organism in the Jollof rice served.
of pathogen organism in the Jollof rice served.
SCOPE OF STUDY
This project work is based on the identification
examination of pathogenic bacterial organism associated with (Jollof rice)
served in the following hotels, Top rink and presidential hotel all in Enugu
town and the cavsatire organism include
staphylococcus auvious, salmonella, clostridia per fringers, Escherichia
coli, the modern problem to food satiation
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Examination and identification of pathogenic
bacterial organism in top rank hotel and preidetial hotel all in Enugu town the
food to be examined is only be limited to Jollof rice specifically.
Pathogenic organism to be studied is only restricted
to bacterial organism and not viral protozoa, fungal organism
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Pathogenic organism are organism that are referred
to as specific health hazard associated with gas to intestinal distribute
resulting from the consumption of food containing toxins. The victim suffering from abdominal pain and
diarrheas with more vomiting than diarrheas usually manifest the illness, which
when untreated in time result to the does not result to death it had led to unnecessary expenses in seeking
medical advice. This has now made me be interested on how we can improve on our food lygiene to avoid