study was intended to evaluate the perception and effect of SIWES on business
education students in Nigeria. This study was guided by the following
objectives; to examine the level of awareness of business education students on
the relevance of SIWES to their programme. To know whether business education
students placed in work places relevance to their programme during SIWES. To
know whether students experience the needed practical experience during their
SIWES programme. Whether the students are adequately supervised during their
SIWES programme. Whether the industries allow the students access into their
study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in
addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and
secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the correlation
statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables
and percentage. The respondents under the study were 200 students of Business
education at the Olabisi Onabanjo University.
study findings revealed that there is a positive perception of business
education student on SIWES; SIWES improves the employability of business
education students; based on the findings from the study, efforts should be
made by the Nigerian government and stakeholders in improving further on SIWES.
Background to the Study
level of development of a country is often considered to be an offshoot of the
nature of her educational system and programme. This point is true to the
extent that the technological objectives of a nation are usually rooted in the
educational objectives and programmes of the country. Thus, education for
development is a veritable instrument for socio-economic emancipation and
economic self-reliance of every country. The level of technological development
and skill acquisition has become the basis for determining social, economic and
industrial development. Adequate skill acquisition training programmes through technical
vocation education (TVE) holds the key to development and economic survival of a
At the lower level business education
can be described as a vocational course, an encompassing programme which equips
its recipients with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to succeed in
whatever business endeavours they may engage in. In other words, business education
goes beyond the acquisition of knowledge for scientific and technical
qualification but equips recipients for their work in industry, commerce,
central or local government (BEC 1975). Business education may also be referred
to an educational process or content which has its primary aim of preparing individuals for roles in business
enterprises; either as employees, entrepreneur/employer or simply as
self-employed. (Anao, 1986).
Business education represents a broad spectrum
of disciplines that are offered in elementary, secondary and post secondary.
Specifically, business education is offered at three levels in tertiary
institution in Nigeria
namely; universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. These institutions
have the aim of equipping the products of secondary education and developing
them into middle and high level manpower for diverse areas of the economy. The
general objective of business education as outlined in the pre-vocational curriculum
volume 2 (Fed. Min. of Education, 1984) are as follows:
a. acquire basic knowledge of business
b. develop basic skill in office
c. prepare for further training in
business studies and
d. develop Orientation and basic skills
for starting life for those who can not go beyond the junior secondary school.
(1987) adds that business education programmes are designed to develop the
knowledge, skills and competencies of the learner in terms of:
the learner’s understanding of the contribution of business and office
employees toward the economic development of the nation.
the learner’s personal qualities and attitudes necessary to adjust into the
opportunities for skill training of the workers in order to make him/her
the learner’s to be a business educator.
undergraduate Business education programmes are for students who wish to gain
preparatory qualification in a particular field of study. Thus, the primary
objective of all undergraduate of business education programmes is therefore
students with a solid business education along with additional knowledge and
abilities to succeed in a particular area of business and worlds of work.
and developing in students a capacity for critical thinking, for integrating business
knowledge across different business functions and disciplines and for utilizing
current theory in approaching practical business problem.
the necessary quantitative analytical, and communication skill while grounding
students in applied theory and practice across the management disciplines
the student’s with an opportunity to focus in a particular area of study
designed to meet the needs of highly diverse students body a wide range of
career interests and priorities (Retrieved from http: www.bussinessprogramsi
The growing concern among our
industrialists that graduates of our higher institutions of learning lack
adequate practical background knowledge preparatory for employment in industry,
led to the formation of Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) by the
Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in 1973/1974 session (Information and Guideline
for SIWES 2002). ITF has as one of its key functions which is; to work as
cooperative entity with industry and commerce where students in higher institutions
of learning can undertake mid-career work experience attachment to industry
different areas of which are compatible with their areas of study (Okorie, 2002
in Asikadi, 2003).
bodies involved in the management of SIWES are; Federal Government, Industrial
Training Fund (ITF), other supervising agencies are National University
Commission (NUC), National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and National
Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The function of these agencies
aforementioned include among others to:
2. ensure adequate funding of the scheme
3. establish SIWES and accredit SIWES unit
in the approved institution
4. formulate policies and guidelines for
participating bodies and institutions as well as appointing SIWES coordinators
and supporting staff.
According to the law that established
the SIWES, the objectives of SIWES among others include to:
5. provide an avenue for students in
institutions of higher learning to acquire industrial skills and experience in
their approved course of study.
6. expose and prepare students for
industrial work situation they are likely to meet after the graduation.
7. expose student to work methods and
techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in the
8. provide students with opportunity to
apply their knowledge in real work situation thereby bridging the gap between
theory and practices.
9. enlist and strengthen employer’s
involvement in the entire educational process of preparing students for employment
in industry and;
10. prepare the student for a business
career by merging their analytical power with self-reliance. (Information and
Guideline for SIWES, 2002).
SIWES is a skill training programme
designed to expose and prepare students of agriculture, engineering, technology,
environmental science, medical science, education including technical vocational
education (TVE), pure and applied sciences for the industrial work situation
which they likely to meet after graduation. It is required of all students of
aforementioned disciplines to participate in the programmes Credit units are
assigned to SIWES which is incorporated into the calculation of Gross Point
Average and cumulative point average.
programme, provides students the opportunity to work in one or more areas of
industry and this enables them to relate their theoretical knowledge to the
practical work situation, which is a realistic way of determining the relevance
of theory to practice. The duration of SIWES for relevant categories of
students is four months in polytechnic at the end of NDI, four months in
colleges of education at the end of NCE II and six months in the universities
at the end of 300 or 400 or 500 levels depending on the discipline.
as a training requirement needs to be assessed from time to time in order to
determine whether it is meeting its stated objectives.
of the problems
key objective of SIWES is to relate theory to practice, thus before a student
graduates, he or she should be able to marry theory and practice. Business
education is a programme in which a graduate is required to demonstrate through
practical and mental skills his or her ability with little employers’
preparation. Thus, his or her training should approximate situations in the
world of work especially with the compulsory industrial training requirement of
the programme. It is however observed that some business education products
perform dismally at employment interviews and are unable to apply themselves to
simple office skills, procedures and practices. Could this be as a result of
lack of adequate SIWES programme exposure or failure in the impartation of the
appropriate skills by institution offering business education programme? In a
cross sectional study conducted in some selected industries, universities and
research institutes in 1985, Ukaegbu found that graduates apply their
intellectual skills and knowledge well enough in industries, he added that
students on the other hand are faced with the challenge of handling some
electronic gadgets and facilities during their Industrial Training period which
the school environment may not have sufficiently exposed them to at the time of
undertaking the industrial training. It is on this basis therefore, that this
study seeks to assess the SIWES relevance to business education programme
of the study
main purpose of the study is to assess the relevance of SIWES to business
education programme objectives.
Specifically, the study seeks to
1. The level of awareness of business
education students on the relevance of SIWES to their programme.
2. Whether business education students vplaced
in work places relevance to their programme during SIWES
3. Whether students experience the needed
practical experience during their SIWES programme.
4. Whether the students are adequately
supervised during their SIWES programme.
5. Whether the industries allow the
students access into their mainstream.
In undertaking this study, the
following research questions will be asked to guide the study.
1. What is the perception of business
education students on the relevance of SIWES to their programme?
2. Are business education students placed
in work places relevant to their programme during SIWES?
3. Are business education students exposed
to the practical aspects of their programme during SIWES?
4. Are business education students in
SIWES adequately supervised?
5. Do the industries where the business
education students do their SIWES accept them into their mainstream?
of the study
result of this research will be beneficial to a number of groups and
individuals. The study finding will provide vocational students, employers of labour,
administrator, policy maker and researchers with relevant baseline data. The
study finding will provide vocational students an avenue to appreciate the
integration of theoretical and practical component that will prepare these
students for the “real world” and provide them basic job skill to function in
the labour market.
the finding may bring a useful contribution to employer of labour who are faced
with the task of relating educational target will gainful employment objectives
and the need of the national economic as well as help in determine whether
skill acquire by graduate will contributing to the organization.
addition, the finding will create awareness to administrator on how to improve
the quality of programmes and built on current facilities and services offer to
students such as laboratory, library resources, computer/IT availability and
the finding will provide encouragement for government to give adequate support
to the Business education programme in tertiary institution in term of finance
and monitoring for effective realization of Business education programme
future researchers on similar and other related fields will find it handy as a
reference material to assist them in their research endeavours.
of the study
scope of the study cover SIWES relevance to business education programme
objectives in the school of vocational and technical education in Emmanuel
Alayande College of Education Oyo, Oyo State and in the department of
curriculum studies and Instructional Technology in Olabisi Onabanjo University,
Ago Iwoye, Ogun State of Nigeria respectively. The scope covers the perception
of business education students on the relevance of SIWES to their education
programme, relevance of SIWES work places to their education programme,
students exposure to the practical aspects of their programme during SIWES;
adequate supervision of business education students in SIWES as well as the
determination of whether the industries where the business education student do
their SIWES accept them fully into their mainstream.