As long as human being need each other in
behaviour and action economic activities as well as administration are
becoming more and more complex, organizations are lending towards
grouping together, while in sit of organizations are globally.
Institutions in the same group or ministries may
frequently be separated geographically by considerable distance. Often
therefore, it is impossible for a public organization and administrators
to hold effective meeting or to contact all interested parties.
Consequently a good communication becomes
essential to the effective operation of any organization or
administration and institutions.
Levis and Buker (1983) defined communication as
the conveying of thought, opinions, desires and data to some one else
but it more than just an exchange of evidence. For the receiver must
understand, communication to effective whatever you say or write, thus,
communication are concerned with the successful transfer of message
from the sender to the receiver.
Communication can also be seen as the process by
which one person (group) share and impact information to another person
or (group) so that both people and group can clearly understand one
Communication is the passing of information, news etc. the various and felling from the person to another James etal (1990).
From there above therefore, it can be said that
communication is not just the giving of understandable information and
receiving and understanding the message thereby sent. Communication is
the transmission of a message from a source through a channel to a
PW Atkuns (1987), To him communication could be
verbal, radio, written etc. He further stated that because human beings
cannot survive without communication more especially administration of
Communication therefore exists everywhere and it has now become an indispensable tool for effective administration.
According to Strams .G Sayles (1992)
communication are concerned with the eructation, transmission,
interpretation and use of information. Communication can be on a person
to person basis, as when a boss tells, some one what to do and when a
subordinate report back to his superior from this point.
Communication can also be on department/corporate basis in all
organization. When the various department interchange information from
one department to the other, reaction report, and comments that more or
less effectively up again.
In a cross cultural study on communication
involving the USA, Japan and Britain it was discovered that
communication breakdown was the simple greatest barrier to corporate
excellence. Inefficient communication in an organization is symptomatic
of a fairly corporate, chain. When the administrators in an
organization are friendly, and have a good working report, communication
tends to be very good but when the numbers of the organization engaged
to be mutual distrust, resentment, gossips or when there is a feeling
of incompetence and insecurity there is bound to communication
breakdown, and communication breakdown can lead to the downfall of
every administrators, management as well as an organization in general.
However, all the key functions of administrators
and organization such as planning, organizing, directing and
controlling depend on the effective form proper execution. The role of
communication to administrators is highlighted by the fact that in an
empirical study it was discovered that white-collars employed
communicated. 70% of the time. These involve any of the formal mean of
communication listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Directing as one of the key function of
administrator it requires effective communication from proper
execution. All good leaders encourage effective communication by having
established channels (formal and informal) means of transmitting
information to people when the Leader, Set, the, Pace for open
communication by encouraging subordinate to be frank, by soliciting
information and sending with feed back he set a good organization
climate for administrators. In all enterprises, effective organization
channel is requires to transmit company policies, programmes rule and
regulatory agencies and the general public. It is through good
communication with board of directors management and administrators
papers and subordinate than an administration maintains good will grows
and waxes. The effect of communication in an organization can be
measured in terms of attitude and performance for it affect the moral
of the employers and their attitude toward the leadership or
administration and consequently productivity.
The good administrator recognizes the fact that it
has to transmit skill and knowledge through the various mean or source
of communication to those the organization through it directing,
controlling, organizing, ability to decision making and coordinating
techniques. Also the quality of communication skill posses by the
administrators determines his degree of accomplishment. After all the
primary function of an administrators in the management of relation
between the institution and it environment in the over all goal of
achieving optimal performance of the primary task of the institution.
For administration the word communicator save two key functions.
- It provides a vehicle by which one can implement a plan for action coordinated toward a common goal.
- It provide a mean by which member of the organization can be motivated to execute the plan willingly and enthusiastically.
Therefore, the issuance of orders and the elicit of participative responses are totally dependent on communication.
The background of communication also include the
statement of the communication problem i.e communication is a two way
traffic that is information is not only from the supervisor or
subordinates. It also emanates from subordinate to supervisor in an
organization. Communication does not only between organization but
information could also be passed horizontally, for instance within
institution from one department to another e.g in Kaduna Polytechnic
from the department of public administration to the department of Local
From the foregoing, it could be discovered that
poor communication be an institution or organization may lead to
conflict at the department or efficient and effective communication
therefore these research would examine erotically the following
question otherwise referred to as statement of the problem so as to
establish fact about. The importance or effective communication in an
- Do management communicate to employee through the right channel?
- What method of communication does the management employed to reach all and sundry in the institution?
- Do union leaders as representatives of the splices perform their link age role for the interest of employee and management?
- How does the worker in different department share common views among themselves?
- Why it is that communication as a soul for any
organization is not being effectively use by management to bridge the
gap between employees and the management more especially concerning
economic matter that may favour the employees.
For instance increase in pay or wages, bonus
fringe benefits, leave allowance etc. these and many other research
question that are still vital to the success of this project as well as
beneficial to the researcher as well as the institution that depend
largely on the essence of effective communication will be involved into
course of this research.
Then this chapter cannot be complete without discussing one of the different areas in an organizational communication.
This deals with his function. In Nigeria the conflict between the
supervisor and subordinate generally originates from the apparent
failure of the subordinate to carry out instruction completely. An
incite supervisor who find out his instructions have not been
implemented reprimands, his subordinate and call humans.
He could accuse him of being lazy, careless,
checking in imagination and common sense and a misfit in the
organization. The subordinate in the other hand will believes that he
is innocent and does not deserve such a castigation react un-lengthy
and accuses his boss of special hatred for him and all the people from
his area and poses on his perception to all who like him. This bread
will fell mutual distrust and hatred that effect productivity and
administration function in the organization.
To avoid this ugly situation, it is important that
healthy man to man instruction be very clearly stated. This
effectiveness of giving clear instruction depends on the following.
- The instruction should be complete and indicating what
should be done, the quality of performance desired and the time when
the assignment is to be finished.
- Compliance should be reasonable. That is with the capacity
of the person receiving the instruction under conditions prevailing at
- The instruction should be clear by the executive giving the
instruction that is the ideas of his mind can actually be transmitted
to the person being directed.
- The key point of the major instruction should be put in writing (whenever possible).
- THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
However from the name above we refer to as
the aims or what the communication want to achieve in the field of
administration, organization, as well as some of the institution.
Therefore, the study of communication as an
indispensable tool for effective administration would be beneficial
and the objective of many individual and organization.
1.3.1 Student of public administration
would find this scholartory work very interesting in the course of the
study on communication
- More importantly, the entire tertiary institutions on
Nigerian would objectively find this study very informative and
appreciate as well as a tool for effective administration within their
- Lastly, is the researcher to acquire information about
communication is all about which included the importance, methods,
patterns and barriers to effective communication, a business and public
service organization, or administration.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The organization function by means of collective
actions of people et each individual is capable of taken independent
action which may not be reported properly to other people who ought to
know about it. Good communication are required to achieve a coordinated
Effective communication are to brings about good
relationship between individual workers and management, because his
terms and condition of work are clearly specified in his contract of
employment and in employee handbook..
Communication provides a suitable atmosphere for
attainment of organization goods, boosting and morals of workers and
The following operation terms of ideas facts,
opinions, information and understanding it is the transfer or
transmission of information, and understanding from one person to
Communication may also be referred to as a
meaningful interaction among human being, more especially, it is also a
process by which meaning are read and perceived an understanding. A
word communication can be refer to as a transfer of idea from the
sender to the receiver. Communication can also be seen as an
indispensable management tool. Any means that an individual uses to
transfer meaning, ideas, feeling, emotion or attitude, to, other ,in, communication.
Effective: The accomplishment of the desired goal.
Administration: The framework of an organization under which the employees work. It sees the day to day meaning of an organization.
Employees: The employees can be
defined as the personnel who are hired for a specific term or other
wise for the performance of duties for certain reward. Employees are
manpower of any organization and they are normally referred to as “The
work force” that is human resources.
Transfer: The movement of an employee
from one job to another. One unit to another or one shift to another
and may involve a new geographical location. It may be imitated by the
Demotion: This is a type of transfer
involving a cut in pay, status, privileges or opportunity. It may
result from organization staff reduction, disciplinary penalties, or
the liabilities of the employees to perform adequately in a particular
Promotion: this is a type of transfer
involving higher pay. Increased responsibilities, more privileges,
increased benefits and greater potentials.
Receiver: the person whom a message is sent
Communicator: The person sending the message