This research work topic is Impact of
Total Quality Management on corporate productivity in Nigerian Bottling
This begin with a brief background of the study that introduce the subject
matter, also statement of the problem is also highlighted which is the reason
why the researcher undertook the study to exploit such problems and come up
with solutions, the objective of the study is discuss to see how total quality
is important in the organization, in chapter two which is aimed in discussing
the main body of the study which is review of literature. It consists of
quality, quality determinants, the benefit of total quality management to the
organization, and the challenges of total quality management, the researcher
also employs the use of research methodology to collect data fro m sample size
of 80, in Nigerian Bottling Company, the research work adopt is survey method
of research using questionnaire designed with likert rating scale to gather and
analyzed the data. The data were presented, analyzed and tested in chapter four
of the project in conclusion and recommended some ways to improve on quality in
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of Contents vii
Background of the
Statement of the
Objectives of the
Significance of the
Research Questions 6
Scope of the Study 7
Limitation of the
Definition of Terms 8
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Quality 10
2.3 Quality Determinants 12
2.4 Total Quality Management 14
2.5 Principles of Total Quality Management 18
2.6 Circumstances of Total Quality Management 20
2.7 Benefit of Total Quality Management 21
2.8 Application of Total Quality Management 22
2.9 Challenges of Implementing Total Quality
2.10 Quality Management System Audit/Review 27
2.11 Tools and Techniques for Quality Improvement 28
2.12 Chapter Summary 31
3.1 Introduction 32
3.2 Research Design 33
3.3 Area of Study 33
3.4 Population of the Study 33
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 34
3.6 Instrument of Data Collection 34
3.7 Validation of the Instrument 35
3.8 Reliability of Instrument 35
3.9 Method of Data Collection 35
3.10 Method of Data Analysis 36
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 37
4.2 Characteristics of Respondents 38
4.3 Data Presentation and Analysis 39
4.4 Summary of Findings 48
4.5 Discussion of Findings 51
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 53
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendations 55
1.1 Background of the Study
Total quality management can be defined as a strategy for improving
business performance through the commitment of all employees to fully
satisfying agreed customer requirements at the lowest cost through the
continuous improvement of products and services, business processes and the
Deleforge (2000) also pointed out that total quality management is
concerned with the management of all aspects of quality services provided to
the customer. This includes quality of goods delivery price of services,
quality of promotion and merchandising. The importance quality to an
organization cannot be overemphasized because of it attribute to the fact that
quality determines to a large extent, productivity, customer satisfaction,
profit and other key performance element to an organization.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the approaches used to enforce
quality in the system and process of and organization as a concept, it sees the
participation of all and sundry. Organization in the pursuit of quality so as
to ensure customer satisfaction and organizational and societal benefit. The
rationale behind the total quality management (TQM) concept is that, since a
major objective of most corporate organizations (especially the profit
concerns) is to gain and maintain competitive advantage every key elements that
has a direct bearing on the achievements of that goal is to be accorded
priority attention, among these elements is a quality as it is central to the
The concept of TQM view that, to achieve and sustain competitive
advantage. A firm has to be at the best (optimum productivity) and on the other
hand, the expectation of customers has to be met or satisfied. For the reasons
quality which is true fundamental element in the productivity index assessment
has therefore become and remain a business of all within the firm as it has
direct linkages to both productivity and customers satisfaction problem
surrounding the status of a company’s competitiveness cannot be in connected
with it product performance that how well a product deliver to expectation,
largely determines how competitive the company become.
of the Problems
The continued effort of firm to grow and improve their performance, both
internally and in the market place is constantly being challenged by a number
of fundamental issues, for firm to perform credibly important key elements of
its internally processes has to be looked into in relation to its market role
and relevance, crucial among these basic is the subject of quality.
Quality represent a key component of the productivity index and even so
the external performance or position of the firm in the market place.
The problems or challenges associated to quality for a firms to
continues to be complex one. The question of these hastens firm fared in regard
to quality is almost answer immediately by assessment of the revealing each
firms position in the market place that begin to come to tire is how these firm
see quality, has quality been properly defined as expressed in their processes
and output? In what aspects are the firms internal processes adding the
achievement of quality and which are the area in which they are lacking? What
is the extent of their measuring to customers, requirements and expectation?
The concept of total quality management (TQM) is an approach intended to
inculcate a total quality orientation at all levels of the firm where quality
is intended to achieved first and always how has this concept fared in the
firms, in terms of applicability? Are the strategies, technology and culture
and also training and development of organizational members of the organization
duly impacted by the concept? What is the productivity assessment of the firm
saying in regard to output on quality and firms competitiveness? A proper look
and review of the perception, processes and applications of quality and the TQM
concept would help to revise specific problems area as related to the subject
in the firms and further suggest relevant approaches to solve them.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objectives are as follows:
To identify the need for total quality management
in an organization.
To identify the extent to which total quality
management is being applied in the organization
To identify how total quality management control
reduce cost of product and services
To identify best strategies of the TQM concept that
ensures quality, productivity and competitive advantage for firm.
1.4 Significance of the study
This research will be of much significance to address the following
Setting up a standard of quality measurement system in the organization
which has really affect the operation of the organization, and also lack of effective
leadership of the organizational members, which can be attributed to total
quality management in the organization.
This research work will also go a long way to help the organization the
research work is carried out for them to compete globally in the market; it
will also be of immense contribution to future researcher the similar study.
1.5 Research Questions
What are the needs for total quality management in
What are the extents to which total quality can be
applied in the organization?
How can total quality management control reduce
cost of production and service?
What are the best strategies that total quality
management concept that ensures quality productivity and competitive advantage?
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of the study is concerned about the impact of total quality
management on corporate productivity in Nigerian Bottling Company Kaduna, which
is limited to what is happening in the Nigerian Bottling Company plc, Kakuri, Kaduna from 2004 to 2010.
1.7 Limitation of the study
In carrying out this research, the researcher are facing some problem
and they are as follow:
One of the limitation face by the researcher is the time constraint,
being the most serious and precious assets, coupled with the fact that it waits
for no one, the researcher had no time owning to the fact that there are other
numerous task and obligations to meet.
Another problem face by the researcher is finance the work was limited
due to lack of enough money that will have enable me to do a more thorough job
there, was limited to the level that the resources at my disposal permits.
Another problem face by the researcher is getting attention of the
people the researcher intended to sample. When trying to ask question in the
organization you are carrying out your research some people will not give you
attention when you are trying to ask them question they don’t answer you.
1.8 Definition of terms
Management: this is the art of
coordinating the element of factors of production toward the achievement of the
purpose of and objective through the use of human labour, materials and
Total quality: this is performance
superiority in delaying customers.
Quality management: this is a management
approach which advocates the integration of quality into organization’s
strategy business plan.
Quality: this is an act of
confirming to the client requirements. Quality is the ability to meet the
requirement of customers, now and in the future at a lower over all cost.
Total: this means the summation or association of
everybody with the company and its operations activities produces or services.
Quality control and assurance: this has
the primary concern that all product and services are offered and given
appropriate quality standards.