Accounting Information is aimed at ensuring a maximum amount of information is available to the users that will enable them take meaningful decision regarding their interest in a reporting entity.
The rational behind the proposal is the fact that the importance, use and the need for accounting information is boldly written on the entire sectors of the economy without which it cannot stand. As one of the most important sectors of the economy Aviating sector has been chosen as a case study of this research work.
I have decided to take a holistic look into the accounting procedure and processes involved in generating accounting information in the Nigeria Airspace Management Agency (NAMA) and the roles these accounting information play in the respective decision of the Agency.
Accounting is the presentation of a systematically developed and accurately recorded financial report about an entity engaged in economic activity to the users of such reports. The experts that provide the reports are known as Accountants.
Apart from the provision of reports, the accountants also interpret and analyze reports provided in order to assist those who use the output of the interpretation and analysis for meeting their various needs. When accountants perform the above stated functions, it IS described as practicing accountancy profession. Thus, the entire effort of an accountant is aimed at enhancing decision making m any organization or business environment.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
At each stage of development of man accounting records have been developed according to the needs at that time. The records are so developed and used in enumeration and control of assets, as reporting device for stewardship and the collections, as evidence of trade and for the control of production or the management of business.
From the earliest time, the process of levying and collection of taxes by government called for proper record keeping and report. Such accounting records prepared by Tax collectors served as a basis to reinforce business need for accounting systems and controls.
The development of social life especially the formation of states or sovereignties and levying of taxes necessitated in addition to the knowledge of number, a power of holdings, counting's and recording in this we find the origin of science in accounting.
Early civilization shows that the Babylonian business men recorded their sales and money lending some thousand years ago in day tablets. Egyptians used papyr, to describe the collections before 1000bc.
According to Richards Brown. (yr) the History of Accounting and Accountant Volume 2, he stated that Greek and Romans had well developed record keeping system especially for government purposes. Emperor Augustus was said to have instituted a governmental budget. Inspectors from the central government in Rome were sent out to examine the accounts of provisional governors. The Grecian also have their accounts engraved on stone and exposed in. public specimen, such accounts are among the Elgin marbles in the British Museum. In Great Britain, the earliest systems of accounting of which there is record are those of exchequers of England and Scotland.
The oldest, which has been preserved is the English pipe roll of 1130-1131.
From the above, there are many existing records of early development of accounting not mentioned, it is an evidence to show that so many accounting activities have taken place in the past.
The modern methodology of keeping accounting record began with the introduction of double entry in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. This was the period of rapid expansion of commerce and industry. Among the records based on the double entry system to the book of a French form, the Fremes Bonis of Mortauben, which were kept during the years 1345.
This form the use of books to obtain a review of its position and made up a list of its debtors and creditors. l.C.B Niclcerson reported in his book Accounting Hand Book for Non-Accountants, that book has been preserved from 1297 belonging to Riherio and Baldo Fini in which accounts were opened not only for personal, but for things and two classes were debited and credited vice versa in regular fashion. The book keeping records in this period were in the rudimentary stage without any definite period of balancing.
In some certain situations, the account are not even kept in the monetary unit for example, it was reported that in sleveterly loccite page 309 that firemes Banis opened an account in 19th December 1345 and records were continued in this account without intermission to the 11th December 1358, debit and credits were also by no means separated by often place one below the other as they occur.
Finally, there were no attempt to balance and in some cases the accounts were not even kept in the same monetary unit.
The records that brings out complete double entry system in account is the one discovered in Genwa in the year 1340 in accounts of the stewards to the Local authority. The date when this entry actually commenced could not be determined. Another records in Genoa kept on double entry system is that preserved in Venice. These records belong to traders, neither bankers and stewards of Local authorities.
The records of the Merchant of vernice can be described as complete since every debit has a corresponding credit and profit or loss account is even transferred to capital account.
This period was 1416-1440. It was from this venice that the first treatise on the subject was given to the world in 1494 by "Luca Paciolo" who was one of the most celebrated mathematician of his days. The purpose of the work was not in the first place to give instructions in book-keeping, but to summarize the existing knowledge of mathematics. However, he brought an end to the works by coding the treatise of bookkeeping.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
A critical examination of the management process shows that management is into business for the purpose of maximization of profit.
This can be achieved when decisions made by managers of the business are channeled towards the following areas.
- Investment decision
- Sources of fund decision
- Dividend policy decision.
The future destiny of an organization is planned and controlled by management. When good decisions are made through the use of accounting information at the end of this research work, the following problems must be critically analyzed.
- Can good management contrive realistic ways to achieve the company's or business objective without accounting as a basis for management decision making tool?
- Can management manipulate the controllable variables and plan for the non-controllable variables without accounting as a basis of enhancing decision-making?
- How proactive are the decisions of management/managers without accounting as a basis for management decision making tool?
- Can we measure the performance of managers by planning and decision making which determines management competence without taking into consideration the accounting system as a tool to enhance decision making in any organization.
All these will serve as our statement of problem in this research work.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Accounting information is a tool to enhance decision making in all human endeavors. It plays a key role in management, management function and management processes.
Organizations cannot achieve their optimum output, wealth creation and wealth maximization without effective decision making tool.
The objectives of this research will be as follows:
- Understanding decision making process as it relates to:
i. Identifying objections of an organization.
ii. Searching for alternative courses of action.
iii. Gathering data about alternatives.
iv. Selecting alternative courses of action
v. Implementing the decision
vi. Comparing actual and planned out comes
vii. Responding to divergence from plan
- Understanding conceptual view of management role through the use of accounting tools.
- Understanding the use of accounting tool performance evaluation.
- Understanding the roles of accounting information as a tool for decision making under condition of risk and uncertainly.
- To established the relationship between the accounting information system in NAMA with decision made base on accounting information have yield any positive result in time past.
1.4 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will be focusing on how effective and profitable decisions can be made through the accounting tools and accounting knowledge.
The research work will assist in the following areas.
- Staffing and human resource management
- Leading and interpersonal influence
- Forecasting and
1.5 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
The scope of the research work will be based on the decision making by management of organization, which will be limited to our case study (NAMA) management decision art across different levels of organizational hierarchy.
The research work shall be limited to the different levels like lead of departments, head of units, sectional heads, group heads and regional heads of NAMA. This research work shall also be extended to decision making areas like:
- Capital budgeting decisions
- Cost decisions
- Budgeting and budgeting control decisions
- Inventory control decisions
- Performance evaluation decisions
- Pricing decision and
- Profit analysis decision.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major problems which served as limits to the extent of this research work were as follow:
- The entire branches of NAMA in the country could not be visited due to financial and time constraints.
- The concerned offices were not willing to give adequate responses to the research questions.
- Relevant data available were not be sufficient enough for the purpose of the research.
- The researcher is financially constrained, this limit the extent of the research works to that which is affordable.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some of the terminologies the research will contain are:
The directorates of NAMA:
- Directorate of Human Resources (DHR)
- Directorate of Finance (D()F)
- Directorate of Air Traffic Service (DATS)
- Directorate of Electronics Services (DSES)
- Directorate of Corporate .Affairs / Legal (DCALS)
- Directorate of Aeronautical Information (DAIS)
- Directorate of Commercial and Big Developments (DCBD) etc.
Management: A social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economic planning and regulation of the operation of an Organization in fulfillment of a given purpose or task.
Accounting: 1s the process of identifying measuring and communicating economic information to assist the users in making judgments and decisions.
Management Process: Is a set of inter-departmental activities used by management of an entity of execute the functions of management which includes planning, organizing, staffmg, heading and controlling.
Management control: Is a proves by which managers ensure that resources are obtained and used effectively in the achievement of the organizational goal.
Strategic Planning: The process of deciding on objectives of the organization on changes in the objectives and on the policies that is to govern the acquisition use and disposition of these resources.
Operational control: The process of pursuing that specific tasks are carried out effectively and efficiently. This will also represent the pre-occupation of the low management cadre. Corporate Strategy: Is a long term plan which looks into what the organization intends to achieve and the means or resources regard to achieve them.
Business strategy: This is concerned with decision about how to compete in a particular market. This therefore likely to focus on individual unit i.e. product or market within the organization.
Operational strategies: These are concerned with how different functions of the organization like marketing manufacturing, accounting operate.