This research study was conducted in
order to examine “Effective communication as a strategy for enhancing
organizational performance the case study of Nigerian Breweries Plc Benin. With
a view to ascertain the degree of employee participation in management decision
In finding solution to the problem,
three hypotheses were formulated and also data collected through the use of
self administered questionnaire in a sample of one hundred and ten workers.
However, the result obtained from the
test of hypothesis reveals that there is greater communication among people of
same level than people of different level in the organization. Also it was
revealed that organizational environment affect communication.
It was recommended that management
staff should be sent on training in the area of communication for them to be
aware of the effect of communication, also management and staff relationship
should be improved but should not interfere with authority relationship. This
will in turn increase the volume of organizational performance.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The word communication has a rich and complex
history. It first appeared in English language in the fourteen century, taken
from the Latin word communication which means to impact, share or make common.
Bateman (2002), defined communication as the transmission of information and
meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbol. It is a well known fact that
communication plays a coordinal and integrating role in the management of the
affairs of any organization whether in the function of planning, organizing,
staffing, leading or controlling. Communication is one of the primary areas for
understanding human behavior, Rami (2000). Communication is an essential tool
for management, which is used to carry the whole organization as
Communication is applied to all
phase of managing. It is particularly important in the function of leading.
Communication is critical for all level of human behavior man’s ability to
think and transmit the thought through the communication process, provides the
binding element for social interaction. The relation success or failure of
human endeavor depend to a great extent upon the effectiveness of communication
According to Drucker (1985), the
management effectiveness depends on his ability to listen and to read on his
ability to speak and to write. Unfortunately, the importance of communication
has not been well recognized in business. It is generally believed that anyone
with common sense can write. Most managers write to impress not to express.
Effective communication is a fundamental aspect of job performance and
managerial effectiveness. Communication is a vital management component to any
organization whether the purpose is to mainly update employees on new polices
to prepare for a weather disaster to ensure safety throughout the organization
or to listen to the attitude of employees; effective communication is an
integral issue in effective management.
The purpose of the paper is to
recognize and discuss the significance of effective communication during the
process of managing changes in organizations. The paper reviews the literature
investigation the relationship between communication and organizational change.
The advantages of successful communication related to improved efforts of
employees to plan and execute strategies are also discussed. The paper also
identifies the objectives and communication needs for each stage of the change
process. Also, the various motives and benefits of organizational communication
are discussed. The paper offers a change communication model which identifies
different variables facilitating effective communication and finally ensuring
successful organizational change. Also, it highlights the aspect of
communication which has proven to be useful for successful changes in business
organization. In the uncertain and always changing times or any situation,
communication is critical between leadership and its member. To assure a steady
and meaningful flow of information, human resource leader can play and should
play a strategic role in assuring effective communication is delivered in a
meaningful two-way process i.e. sending a message and receiving a proper
feedback. It has been observed over the years that effective communication has
been a strategy for organization that has been performing well. It has ensured
a cordial relationship between management of an organization and its employees.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Without doubt a high percentage of
inefficiency and misunderstanding in organization can be traceable to
inadequate and insufficient understanding of information.
Since communication is said to be
the nervous system of any organized group. Davis (2002).
No doubt there are some problems
associated with effective communication on organizational performance these
listening and premature evaluation when people do not listen carefully to what
is being said to them, this will in turn result to premature evaluation
overload: When information is too much it will lead to misinterpretation
iii. Difference in status and power between the sender and the receiver
of information is another barrier to effective communication.
iv. Selective perception: people tend to perceive what they expect to
perceive in communication, it means that they hear what they want to hear and
ignore other relevant information.
This is the predisposition of an act or not to act in certain way. It is a
mental position regarding a fact or state. Clearly, if people have made up
their minds, they cannot objectively listen to what is said. According to Katz
(2000) he stipulated that the fundamental problems in communication arise from
(a) On the part of the speaker or writer
(b) On the part of the listener or reader.
Undoubtedly an effective
communication in an organization is the strategy for enhancing and directing
the performance of any organization in this present day complex and competitive
environment that not withstanding the following questions will be asked.
organizational performance be enhanced by effective communication?
(b) What is the impact of the environment on both inflow
and outflow of communication in the organization?
(c) What are the major factors responsible for the
difficulties encountered in the interpersonal communication between top level
managers and lower level managers?
This research question will be answered in the
objective of the study.
OF THE STUDY
The specific objective of the study
is to determine and evaluate on the strategies of enhancing organizational
performance through effective communication. The specific objectives of the
To examine if effective
communication affect organizational performance.
To ascertain if
organization environment affect communication
To verify if
communication difficulties affect various management cadre in organization.
In this research work some hypothesis are formulated
by the use of the null and the alternative hypothesis. For the purpose of
testing. The null hypothesis is denoted by Ho, while the alternative hypothesis
is denoted by Hi:
Ho: organizational performance does not depend on
Hi: Organizational performance depends on effective
Ho: Organizational environment does not affect
Hi: Organizational environment affect communication
Ho: A Communication difficulty does not affect various
management levels in organization.
Hi: communication difficulties affect various management
levels in organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research work will be of immense
benefit to various forms of organization in Nigeria at the conclusion of this
research work, both top and low level managers in Nigeria organization would be
able to view communication as a means by which people are linked in an organization
to achieve their common objective.
This research work will be of
importance to Nigerians because it would describe the various methods
techniques and means by which effective communication as a strategy for
enhancing organizational performance.
More so, this study would produce an
insight for top middle and low level managers in organizations in Nigeria to
understand the on going: in the Nigerian business environment.
The research work would be a useful
source of materials for information, teaching and for future research purposes.
Finally this study will assist in
knowing the benefit to be enjoyed and derived that really emphasizes on the
concept of organizational communication as a strategy for its organizational
growth and performance.
OF THE STUDY
The research work is to study the effectiveness of
communication as a strategy for enhancing organizational performance with
regard to Nigerian Breweries Plc, Benin.
The scope of this study is not
intended to embrace in detail all that may have been required to develop the
topic of the study because of its broad and its inherent difficulties
associated with obtaining data because of time constraints – which will hamper
a useful detailed development of the research topic.
However, this study will be in terms
of the population studied, here the unit of data collection will be taken form
the public affairs community relation department sales department,
administrative and human resources department.
More so, the studies carried out so
(a) The reaction of top management staff to effective
(b) The process that can enhance effective communication
(c) How can effective communication enhance
(d) Factors that account for the achievement and failure
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Our country is a very large country
with well over two thousand companies. Therefore to carryout an aggregate study
of the flow of effective communication as a strategy for enhancing
organizational performance will be a tedious task and also time consuming.
However most companies which
constitute of the research sample have obviously gotten some other branches
scattered in other part of the country.
In view of these limitations, it
would be practicably difficult for the researcher to get in touch with all
these branches to collect data’s. Although the researcher would be able to
gather information directly from the case study Nigerian breweries plc.
Situated at Sapele road Benin City, Edo State.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Communication: is the transfer of information from
one person to another
Organization: An enterprise/business entity.
Performance: The rate at which something works
Management: People or persons in charge of
Top level Management: Refers to the heads of any
Middle level/management: This group consists of the personnel
accountants and marketing officers this group is answerable to the top level
Lower level management: This group carries most of
the information both to the top level and middle level management and they are
referred to as the supervisory level.
Subordinates: are directly involved in coordinating
the activities of management employees