1.1 Background to the Study
As a concept, motivation is ambiguous,
indefinite and vast. A lot of factors create desire in individuals; and
if these desires are not met, the way of life of the individual is
affected because his ego is involved. As a concept that tries to give
account of how individuals are encouraged or driven to achieve a
particular task, it becomes difficult to discuss in concise manner.
Motivation in this regard, is centred on employees in their work place.
Human beings have needs and desires and most times people’s needs are
insatiable. Also unprecedented circumstances, time, and situations may
cause motivating factors to change with time.
Many organizations had for decades been
confronted with the need to maximize industrial productivity through
either the maximization of human output or by increasing the potential
capability of machines. Efforts in either direction have produced only
minimal results (Peretomode and Peretomode, 2005). According to the
Peretomodes, advances in industrial engineering through automation and
mechanization of industrial processes were welcomed relief for
management, yet these advances alienated the employees and brought about
greater dissatisfaction. Management problem today therefore appears
very much human than mechanical (Henderson, 2000).
With this realization therefore, greater
efforts towards increasing productivity have taken the human approach
and hence the use of incentives. The use of incentives to motivate
employees however, is by no means recent, but has acquired more
popularity in recent times, while the parameters of incentive employed
have widened to the use of money (economic incentive) the provision of
amenities and fringe benefits (social incentives), involvement in
decision making (participatory incentive), to the use of such factors as
job security and promotion (psychological incentives) (Wikipedia,
The biggest task for motivation
theorists as well as management today is the need to assess the relative
effectiveness of these different forms of incentives. Several questions
therefore are yet to be resolved relative to the relationship between
incentives and productivity. Firstly, there is the need to establish
clearly, if in fact incentives do influence productivity, and secondary,
the nature of incentive and the type of incentive will enhance
The study therefore, addresses the
impact of motivation on workers’ performance with the intent to
ascertain the relationship between the presentation of motivational
strategies and the subsequent level of performance.
However, the relationship between the
organization and its members is governed by what motivates them to work
and the fulfillment they derive from it. The manager needs to know how
best to elicit the cooperation of staff, and direct their performance to
achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. The failure or
success of any organization depends on whether or not these goals and
objectives are achieved. An organization’s workforce plays significant
role in the achievement of these organizational goals and objectives.
Employers of labour have however come to
recognize the importance of employees’ welfare provisions, as
incentives to motivate workers for better results, and achievement of
the goals of the organization.
Motivation therefore, is concerned,
basically, with why people behave in a certain way (Mullins, 2006). The
basic underlying question is, “why do people do what they do?” In
general terms, motivation can be described as the process of arousing
and sustaining goal-directed behaviour (Nelson and Quick, 2001). It can
also be defined as an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves
(hence “motivation”), and that directs or channels behavior toward goals
(Barelson and Steiner, 1964 as cited in Ogundele, 2005). In other
words, motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of
drives, desire, needs, wishes, and similar forces.
An organization must pay for services it
gets and be sufficiently concerned about the workforce in order to
achieve the set targets of the organization. It is thus the
responsibility of an organization to ensure that conditions of
employment are so arranged that the immediate needs of the employees are
satisfied. Hence, the study examines the impact of motivation on
workers’ performance, using the telecommunication industry (i.e.
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited).
1.2 significance of the Study
The following segment of this chapter elaborates on the importance of the study.
The result of this study should enhance
greater efficiency and effectiveness in the productivity and management
of organization. The importance of manpower productivity should also be
ascertained through this study. Hence, it will also be of paramount
relevance of setting up coordination, motivation and management of
This study will enhance adequate measurement to obtain high standard living of a country.
The study, will add to the existing body
of knowledge on employees’ motivation and workers’ performance. This
study will ginger organization, particularly the human resource manager,
policy makers, business owners as well as employees on how to correct
anomalies in the practice of employees’ motivation, compensation and its
The results of this study should assist
in defining new methods for Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited in particular
and telecommunication industry in general.
1.3 Statement of the Research Problem
Job dissatisfaction is known to be a
problematic issue and it is rampant among the University graduates. It
is also rampant among employees in organizations and with the single
reason caused by money. More problematic, the University graduates of
today or job seekers, and even managers do not care about whether the
job duties are fulfilling rather, they care more about the size or the
magnitude of incentives attached to the job.
More so, employees often complain that
their salaries are stagnant, that others receive more pay or salaries
than them, while they perform the same type of job. They usually accuse
the management of gross favouritism and incompetence due to inequality
or underpayment of employees which often lead to mass dissatisfaction
However, the main purpose of every
organization is profit maximization. All factors of production must be
adequately channeled to attain a particular goal for an organization to
achieve profit. Man stands out among all the factors of production
because he is the one that puts all other factors e.g. land, capital etc
to use. This notwithstanding, man still remains insatiable.
Motivation of man or an employee is
achieved when his psychology is tuned to a positive disposition which
can now lead him to perform in a particular way. The type of motivation a
worker receives goes a long way to determine his dedication and
efficiency in his work-place. Also, the levels of motivation and the
motivating factors of employees vary from one employee to the other as
well as from organization to organization.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this study is to
examine the impact of motivation on workers’ performance in Multi-Choice
Nigeria Limited. Other specific objectives are stated thus:
- i. To identify major cause of employee turnover in the organization.
- ii. To determine if employees’ motivational packages are parts of the factors that stimulates workers on the job.
- iii. To Establish relationship between good motivational packages and staff performance.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study would be on
workers’ performance, using the concepts of motivation as effective
technique in the telecommunication (i.e. Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited)
It will also cover all aspects of
productivity with particular emphasis on employees’ productivity. It
examines the quality of the interaction between individuals and the
The responsibility for improving the
quality of individuals and the organization, as well as improving
productivity in the telecommunication sector. Therefore, the study will
use Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited as a case study.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
Synonymous with every research work,
this project is limited to telecommunication industry. Specifically, it
is limited to Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited alone.
1.7 Research Questions
- What are the causes of employees’ turnover in work organizations?
- What are the factors that stimulate potential employees to apply for jobs?
- Is there significance relationship between employees’ motivational package and staff performance?
1.8 Research Hypotheses
1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between employees’
turnover and organizational performance.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between employees’ turnover and organizational performance.
2. Ho: Stimulating potential employees does not improve performance in work organizations.
Hi: Stimulating potential employees improves performance in work organizations.
3. Ho: There is no significant relationship between employees’ motivational package and performance.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between employees’ motivational package and performance.
1.9 Brief History of Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited is located
within Lagos Metropolis. Specifically, it is located at plot 1379A,
Tiamiyu Savage Street, Victoria Island, Lagos. Multi-Choice Nigeria
Limited started as the subscriber management arm of M-Net, the analogue
Pay-TV channel. Today, it is the leading multichannel digital satellite
television operator across the African continent. Its dynamic technology
platform and varied bouquet of channels, built on a foundation of
compelling premium entertainment, has seen Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited
grow its business across South Africa.
We live in a world where information has
become the key advantage. Today, information can travel anywhere,
anytime, at great speed and in so many different ways – unlocking
potential wherever it goes. At Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited, they
constantly look for innovative ways and push boundaries to deliver
information and content that is not only entertaining, but informative.
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited provides
its DSTV services to different market segments. The DSTV bouquets cater
for different lifestyles and pockets, from entry level to Premium. Its
premium service provides more than 89+3 HD video, 40 CD quality audio
channels, 32 radio stations and 3 interactive services. DSTV is also
available as a riche service for the Indian and Portuguese communities.
M-Net and Super Sport are part of the
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited stable, which delivers premium channels and
content to a growing number of subscribers. Oracle, DSTV Mobile, NWEB,
DSTV Online, CommerceZone, SmartVillage and NMSCom also form part of the
DSTV Mobile run trials on technologies
aimed at playing a significant role in the transmission of the just
concluded 2010 World Cup; namely mobile television. This mobile
broadcast technology allows for the digital terrestrial broadcast of
live television channels to a specially equipped mobile phone.
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited is one of
the outstanding examples of a pioneering South African company, owned by
Naspers, an international player providing entertainment, technology
and e-commerce services.
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited’s
involvement in South Africa goes beyond its core business. Through its
corporate social investment, the company actively participates in social
transformation and through technology, enables individuals and
communities to help themselves ultimately leading to growth of the
economy of the country.
Consequently, Multi-Choice Nigeria
Limited’s potentials, its unique services and being an international
organization which manage workforce diversity prompts the interest of
this research work.
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
Motivation: This is
described as “those inner drives that activate or move an individual to
action”. In essence, it is what spurs an individual towards a desired
Motivation Systems: These
are packages that are designed and intended to attract, retain and
motivate employees. They do not just happen. Hence, certain conditions
must exist for this to occur.
Performance: This is
simply defined as the output resulting from a given resource input at a
given time. Hence, a good definition of productivity must include three
major elements output, resources committed, and time.
Management: It is
referred to as the process whereby a body or set of people create,
direct, maintain and operate purposive organization through
co-ordinated, co-operative human effort.
Employee: This can be described as a person who is paid to work for somebody.