1.0 Background to the Study
The origin and traditional background of trade fairs can be traced to
the time when neither good communication network of security needed for
the establishment of pertinent commercial relationship were easily
The first significant trade fair in Nigeria was held in 1960 to add
glamour to Nigeria Independence Celebration, through with less business
motives. The first trade fairs with international magnitude was held in
1977 and 60 countries attended.
Over the years companies have come to accept trade exhibition as an
effective way of creating awareness and this invariably stimulate the
demand for their product. Trade Fair or exhibition can be effectively
used regardless of the product lifecycle but it will be better applied
at the introduction stage of a product.
This will allow patient consumers to know the product use and its design.
It is noteworthy that trade exhibition could be as small as one main
exhibition in one room apartment, it can also be general or specialized
exhibition, which could be held for commercial and non-commercial
exhibition we are however interested in commercial exhibition. In
recent time trade exhibition has gained prominence in the manufacturing
industries. At present three international trade fair were held
annually in Nigeria, Lagos, Kaduna&Enugu international trade
fairs. These fairs are organized by the Nigerian Association of
Chamber of Commerce & Industry Mines and Agriculture (NACCIMA).
The reason for organisation participation in trade exhibition as given by Christian Peterson (1972) are as follow:-
1. It could be used to create positions impression on the
mind of the potential buyers or to correct negative impressions.
2. It could be used to serve as opportunity for a company
without a regular sales force to show case their product to the public.
3. Trade exhibition could be used to test marketing product pending commercialization.
4. Trade exhibition could be used to test marketing product pending commercialization.
5. Trade exhibition could be used to show trade prestige
i.e. if a company want to be seen among it competitors as a leader.
6. Trade exhibition is specifically use by small scale
business to compete with large firm in already crowded business.
1.1 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The research study is directed towards finding out how effective trade exhibition is in marketing of consumer goods.
1. To know the extent trade exhibition has created awareness for the product of the manufacturer.
2. To know if trade exhibition can be used to forecast the demand for the company’s product.
3. To know if trade exhibition achieve the objectives set by the company.
4. To know or determine trade exhibition contribution to consumer relationship with the company.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
I have been encouraged to write on this topic because of the attitude
of some business organisation who falls to realize and appreciate the
role of trade exhibition play in the survival of any business
organisation. The negative attitude of organisation toward the use of
trade exhibition of promote the image of the company’s product has led
to an increase level of imitation and life of many consumers are
endangered and inadequate information about the organisation and its
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research intend to throw light on the need for trade exhibition
in marketing of consumer goods the finding of the study will therefore
be used to:
a. Throw more light on how consumer react to trade
exhibition and its benefit in term of informing them about the product
and at the same time enhancing the company’s product image.
b. The management of the company concerned will be able to know those that may arise as a result of competition.
c. It help the management of Loyalted Limited to really comprehend the benefit of trade exhibition.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. How often do you buy at trade exhibition?
ii. Does trade exhibition create awareness for the company product?
iii. Has trade exhibition influence consumer’s decision to buy a product?
iv. Does trade exhibition attract new consumer and increases the usages by existing consumers.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Trade exhibition have no impact on the company Sales.
Hi: Trade exhibition has impact on the company’s sales
Ho: Trade exhibition does not create awareness for the company’s product.
Hi: Trade exhibition create awareness for the company product.
Ho: That trade exhibition does not used to test in the market for consumer’s product.
Hi: That trade exhibition is used to test in the market for consumer product.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This involved all activities performed in the collection of all
necessary data and information required for the research. Data needed
for this research study will be collected through primary and secondary
a. Primary Data Sources: This will be carried out with the use of Questionnaire, the question are conducted on the staff or loyalted product limited.
b. Secondary Data Sources:- This will come
from journal, magazines, books, newspaper, report, government
publication on trade exhibition and other relevant material.
An overviews of the method of research is provide which include a
description of the research method employed in collecting the data that
were analysed to arrive at any conclusion. It also deals with the
research design, population and sample size determination. Other area
discussed are questionnaire design administration of questionnaire,
method of data collection and also validity and reliability.
1.7 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The instrument for the above study is by applying the test statistic known as chi-square the formula is given as
c2 = E (Oi – ei)2
Where Oi = Observed Frequency
Ei = Expected Frequency
cc2 = Represent computation for the test
= represent chi-square in table
The expected frequency is calculated thus
Ei = Product of the marginal total pertaining to the sale under consideration.
1.8 RESEARCH DESIGN
In order to increase sales, create awareness and to avoid an eventual
decline of the product in the market, many manufacturers of consumer
goods have come a long way in their trade exhibition, strategies aimed
at gaining more share of the market. The idea may not be totally
rewarding if proper research is not clearing spelt. The limitation of
this study are summarized as follow;
1. Time limitation:- The time available for
the project does not allow a thorough and a detailed analysis of the
topic but effort were made at arriving at a meaningful finding.
2. Limitation in terms of Survey:- In this
regard some of the problem faced in the field survey are no response,
not in the office etc all these affect the extent of study.
3. Cost:- This is another factor militating against the study, hence the scope was limited to Lagos.
4. The management no divulging information which they consider
confident and use strategic decision regarding their exhibition and
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Brand Name:- This is a word letter or
number which is bear able or can be realized given by a producer to a
particular product to differentiate it from product of other producers.
2. Competitors:- These are people or
organisation that seek to have an edge over their competitor by
comparing either with good or services by producing goods of better and
high quality and stressing the unique selling proposition of their
3. Products:- This is anything that can be
offered to the market for use consumption or acquisition of their
product can be tangible or intangible product are those cannot be seen.
4. ProductRange:- This is production range of product that a company produces for consumption or offered to the market for use.
5. Consumer Goods:- These are goods offered to the market to be bought for direct consumption and not further processing before it can be used.
6. Exhibition: A Display of work of art manufactured goods and natural production for which people are expected to place order.
7. Infringement: An action which goes against take over the right of other.
8. Advertising:- This is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas goods ad services by an identified sponsor.
9. Promotion:- This is the communication to persuade or convince prospective consumers.
10. Personal Selling:- This is an oral presentation in a conversation with one or more prospective purchases for the purposes of making sales.
11. Publicity:- This is always in relation to the news about exhibition is part of.
12. Research:- This is an investigation or a search directed to the discovery of some fact by careful consideration or study of a subset
13. Sale Promotion:- This is short term incentives to encourage purchases or sale of product or service which trade exhibition is part of.
14. Target Market:- This is defined as consumer or group to which a form product or services is appealed to.
15. Precinct:- This is the amount of money (plus) that is charged on a product for an exchange.
16. Packaging:- This is the material used to wrap or protect goods from Spoilage and it is also used to pack good & product.
17. Trade: The business of buying & selling within a country or between countries.
18. Marketing Objective:- These are aims set
to achieve by the management over a period it is usually customer
oriented that the top management would want to accomplished.
19. Marketing:- A total system of interrelated
organizational activities designed to plan, develop promote and
distribute want satisfying product, services and ideas. It include all
business activities necessary to affect transfer of ownership of goods
and provide for their physical distribution form. Producer to the final
20. Consumers:- A consumer is a person that buy goods or product from another person, consumer can be divided into three (3) type these are:
a. Existing Consumer:- These are regular buyer
b. New Consumer:- These are new people buying the product for the first time.
c. No Consumer:- Those that are not buying the product.