1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction to Entrepreneurship
2.2 Entrepreneurship and economic Development
2.3 Entrepreneurship Education and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
2.3.1 Strategies for Effective Entrepreneurship Education
2.3.2 Objectives of Entrepreneurship Education
2.4 Competence-based view of entrepreneurship
2.5 Developing entrepreneurial competencies as a student business
2.6 Entrepreneurship Education and Technological Patterns
2.7 Related Empirical Studies
2.8 Summary of review of related literature
3. 0 Introduction
3.1 Design of the study
3.2 Sample size
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Instrument for data collection
3.5 Validation of instrument
3.6 Reliability of instrument
3.7 Method of data collection
3.8 Method of statistical analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Research Question 1
4.2 Research Question 2
4.3 Research Question 3
4.4 Research Question 4
4.5 Preliminary Findings
SUMMARY OF THE STUDY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY
5.1 Re-statement of the Problem.
5.2 Summary of Procedure Used
5.3 Principal Findings
5.4 Summary of the Study
5.5.1 Discussion Of Findings
1.1 Background of the study
Over the years there have been many definitions of entrepreneurship
and they have all been acceptable definitions but i define it as the capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit. The most obvious example of entrepreneurship is the starting of new businesses.
In economics, entrepreneurship combined with land, labor, natural resources and capital can produce profit. Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking, and is an essential part of a nation's ability to succeed in an ever changing and increasingly competitive global marketplace.
One can simply say that entrepreneurship as the pursuit of a
self-owned business or company. Entrepreneurs are people who are willing
to take risks to make a profit, whether by inventing a new product or
opening their own company, it is also the behavior of starting business
or taking on financial risk with the hope of making a profit.
Entrepreneurship is almost a way of life. If you have it in you, then it
permeates everything that you do.
Entrepreneurship is the act of starting a company, arranging business
deals and taking risks in order to make a profit through the skills
acquired (Omolayo 2006). Entrepreneurship education can also be
described as the term given to who has innovative ideas and also posses
the ability to transforms it to profitable activities. Entrepreneurship
in other words is the process of bringing together creative, innovative
ideas and coupling these with management and organizational skills in
order to combine people, money and resources to meet an identified need
and create wealth. In the same vein, Nwangwu (2007) opined that
entrepreneurship is a process of bringing together the factors of
production, which include land, labour and capital so as to provide a
product or service for public consumption. However, the operational
definition of entrepreneurship is the willingness and ability of a
person or persons to acquire educational skills to explore and exploit
investment opportunities, establish and manage a successful business
Entrepreneur can be defined as an innovating individual who has
developed an ongoing business activity where none existed before.
Meredith (1983) defined an entrepreneur as a person or persons who
possesses the ability to recognize and evaluate business opportunities,
assemble the necessary resources to take advantage of them and take
appropriate action to ensure success. Entrepreneurs are people who
constantly discover new markets and try to figure out how to supply
those markets efficiently and make a profit.
An Entrepreneur is a personthat searches for change, responds to
change, and exploits change by converting change into business
Political instability and inconsistencies in the social-economic
policies of successive government led to the emergence of high level
unemployment in Nigeria. In the mid 80s, the Nigeria economic collapsed
while youth and graduate unemployment hit the roof. There was
large-scale layoff of workers and early retirements as a result of
structural adjustment policies and bad economic trends in the country.
In the face of this situation entrepreneurship, which would have
salvaged the situation, was not encouraged. It has been observed that
tertiary education has not been properly included with philosophy of
self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive
environment, that will promote pride in self-discipline, encouraging
people to take part actively and freely in discussions and decisions
affecting their general welfare, promoting new sets of attitudes and
culture for the attainment of future challenges.
According to Nwangwu (2007), the failure of tertiary education to
inculcate the above philosophy in students has led to wastages in terms
of both human and natural resources. This is because the youth and
graduate from tertiary institutions are not equipped with the skills
with which to exploit the natural resources that abound in Nigeria. All
these factors have rendered the pursuit of self-reliance among our
graduates difficult to retain. Whether technology alone will be
sufficient to achieve an entrepreneurship sustainable future is unclear.
This will depend on public and private support for entrepreneurship
beneficial technologies and the extent to which further growth in world
population and economic output will compromise per capita emissions
reductions and a more efficient use of natural resources.
Sustainable development is a pattern of economic growth in which resource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment
so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for
generations to come (Paul, 2005). Sustainable development ties together
concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems
with the social challenges faced by humanity. Sustainable development
requires balancing environmental, societal and economic considerations
in the pursuit of development and an improved quality of life.
Sustainability includes intergenerational equity, gender equity, just
and peaceful societies, social tolerance, environmental preservation and
restoration, poverty alleviation and natural resource conservation
(Paul, 2005). The major essential tool for achieving sustainable
development includes the following:
· Improve the quality of basic education;
· Reorient existing education programmed to address sustainable development;
· Develop public awareness and understanding; and
· Provide training for all sectors of private and civil society.
Education for Sustainable Development is the focus or projection of
education that seeks to equip people towards creating a sustainable
future. Stakeholders such as government, businesses, educational
institutions, media, and organizations play important roles in achieving
sustainable development. Each of these sectors has a different vision
of sustainable development. Some are interested in environmental
preservation and protection; some have economic development interests
while other may be more interested in social development. According to
UNESCO (2003) the way each nation, cultural group and individual views
sustainable development will depend on its own values.
In many European nations, Universities and technical colleges trained
students of science, economics and business management in skills that
helps to build more sustainable societies. Programs such as Peace
Education, Human Right Education, Environmental Education and Youth
Entrepreneur schemes are carried out in many schools (UNESCO, (2003).
Hence, such initiatives help students and teachers to gain an
understanding of the inter-linkages needed for sustainable development
(Paul, 2005). The emphasis has been on education that will provide life
and occupational skills that will enhance the potentials of individual,
reinforcing self-sufficiency and improving quality of life.
Entrepreneurial competency is defined as the capability of
entrepreneurs to face effectively a critical situation by making sense
of environmental constraints and by activating relational and internal
specific resources’ (Iandoli, (2007). Entrepreneurial competencies are
defined as individual’s traits, such as specific knowledge, motives,
features, self images, social roles and abilities which result in
venture’s success. Some entrepreneurial competencies can be learned
through formal education, other competencies are tacit and depend on
individual’s characteristics and are built during the person’s life,
experience, and career (Brownell, (2006).
Entrepreneurial competencies associated with the firm’s performance
and competitiveness business growth and success (Mitchelmore and Rowley,
(2010). Acquiring entrepreneurial competencies is of key importance for
entrepreneurs willing to achievement oriented entrepreneurs. Issues
relating to the competencies development process relating to
entrepreneurs have generally been neglected. Competencies play an
important role in successful entrepreneurship. Surprisingly, the
research on the entrepreneurial competencies is rather limited
(Mitchelmore and Rowley, (2010).
This study examines the effect of automobile technology students’
competency on entrepreneurship for sustainable development in Lagos
State. Also, change in basic technologies of production, transport and
consumption rather than modifications of existing products and processes
or the adoption of end-of-pipe technologies are also considered.
However, such changes alone will be largely insufficient for
achieving the ultimate goal of sustainable development. To achieve that,
more fundamental changes in technology are needed.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There are basically two ways a graduate can end up , either into the
soft skill level which is gaining employment in a corporate
world(white-collar job) or entrepreneurial skills(business owner) to
start one’s own business. In Nigeria’s economic environment which has
unemployment as one of its major problems, it is of benefit that when a
student acquires proper knowledge in entrepreneurship skills such
student would be able to discover what they can lay their hands on if
corporate employment does not come. The importance of entrepreneurship
to any economy is like that of entrepreneurship in any community.
Entrepreneurial activity and the resultant financial gain are always of
benefit to a country. If a student has entrepreneurship skills then they
will recognize a genuine opportunity when you come across one and that
makes unemployment reduction possible.
The present education system encourages cramming and memory and not
on creativity and practical application of knowledge and this is
unhealthy and unstable for a virile technological advancement and
entrepreneurship development .Also fear of failure by the people to take
risk on entrepreneurial activities, while an unstable and conducive
political environment drives away people that are planning to embark on
entrepreneurial activities hence it does not make knowledge delivery on
entrepreneurial skills available to students.
In addition, government programs are not designed to promote
technological and entrepreneurship sustainability in Nigeria, the level
of infrastructural development provided by the government is still very
low and this has been affecting to a very high extent the level of
productivity and entrepreneurial activities in the country.Judging by
the figures that are coming out of the Education Ministry in Nigeria, In
the last few years, at least 60% of graduates are not able to get
employment immediately. Because of that, they go into one
entrepreneurial venture or another, but unfortunately they have not been
adequately prepared to face the challenges of venturing.
Introduction of entrepreneurship skills in our curriculum and making
it compulsory in education system in order to prepare students for
proper skills needed in venturing into any business they can after
graduating as this will help reduce unemployment. However, the education
institution need to encourage entrepreneurship skills right from the
curriculum itself and government should also take initiative in
encouraging the students by providing conducive climate for the same.
Teachers and faculties should motivate students in being interested
in this aspect of the curriculum and it should be emphasized as a very
important knowledge that may be useful after completion of studies.
More so, Entrepreneurial development through education will advance
the economy of the nation hence much credence should be given to it and
ingrained with focus on profitable personal development. Infrastructure
provision and non-profitable organization invitation into sponsoring
various entrepreneurial programs and funding in institutions is a very
important aspect in the growth and development of entrepreneurship
development and employment level of a nation.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study will be to:
1. Examine automobile technology student competency on entrepreneurship.
2. Find out the effect of entrepreneurship on sustainable development in Lagos state.
3. Explores some of the policy issues in achieving a
shift towards a more sustainable development in Lagos State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of this studies will be useful to the youth both graduates
and undergraduates. This is because it will help them to be aware,
prepare and improve on personal development of their entrepreneurial
skills hence gives chance to those who are not lucky or do not become
gainfully employed in the so called ‘White-Collar’ jobs to start their
own business with the little possible finance they lay their hands on.
Secondly, The result of the study will be useful to the government as
it will lay emphasis on the various ways in which entrepreneurship
skill development in students can reduce unemployment and also point out
the various ways this can be done and policies that will be put in
place to make sure that entrepreneurial activities can be directed
toward productive ends conducive to economic progress.
Thirdly, the society is a large faction to gain from this study by
making known the importance of delivering the knowledge of
entrepreneurship skills can go a long way to meet local needs from
hairdresser, financial consultant, emergency plumber and other local but
important business owners. This study also talks about the fear people
have in risk of starting a business and how that can be overcome and how
the society is a large factor in the fear that is created in the mind
of someone that wants to start a business.