1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
population of Lagos is at present in excess of 18 million. A megacity
status is conferred by the United Nations on cities with a population of
10 million and above. Building and preserving a model mega city comes
with great challenges. Providing a sufficient amount of infrastructure
and other necessities that would accommodate the needs of over 18
million people could be daunting (Ayeni, 2008).
By 2025, officials and population analysts agreed that the number of
people in the city and in the surrounding communities, especially, in
Ogun State axis, would leap to 30 million. Prominent among the
challenges are housing, infrastructure and transportation, particularly
in more than 10 local government areas (LGAs) that made up of the state,
excluding local council development areas (LCDAs). Besides, the
notorious traffic jams, choking pollution, inadequate supply of potable
water, insecurity and absence or inadequate social and economic needs of
the people pose more challenges. Apart from series of efforts put in
place by government through several urban renewal programs, the
uncontrolled influx of people from virtually every states of Nigeria,
including neighboring countries, such as Benin Republic, Togo, Ghana and
others, is heightening the fear that the next few years would provoke a
daunting task for the authority (Tim, 2003).
It has been observed
that in some houses in Lagos metropolis, septics are channeled directly
into the drain. The government is, therefore, challenged to invest
heavily in the protection of the environment through urban renewal
programs in order to avert environmental abuse and its consequences.
People migrate from villages to the city-centre, without adequate
understanding of reality on ground. Here, culture comes into play, such
as open defecation as being done in the village, spreading of clothes
publicly and cooking exercise in any open place, among others which is
frustrating the efforts of the state government at transforming the city
through urban renewal programs. Official admitted that planned urban
renewal is a major challenge in an emerging model city like Lagos
(Batley, 2003). Prior to the current urban regeneration efforts by the
government, Lagos used to be referred to as a jungle of various emerging
slums. However, a systematic urban development and slum renewal
programme, in partnership with several development agencies, has since
been put in place to reverse the trend being a major remedy to combat
the menace characterized by urbanization. Consequently, various model
city plans that included Ikeja Model Plan, Victoria Island/Ikoyi Model
City Plan, Lekki Comprehensive Land Use and Infrastructure Master Plan
have been completed while Mainland Central Model City Plan Badagry Draft
Master Plan and Alimosho Master Plan have been concluded, while others
are at various stages of execution. However, in order to give the urban
renewal programme a legal backing, the Lagos State Model City
Development Law was enacted in 2009 while the State Urban and Regional
Planning Law were signed on July 7, 2010.
According to Lindan (1993), certainly, a megacity requires a stronger
financial base. The sheer size of funding required in sustaining a
megacity is beyond what a government could provide on its own. To this
end, Kadiri was of the view that both federal and Ogun state governments
should support Lagos in her efforts to sustain the challenges involved
as a result of its mega status through the urban renewal programmes.
According to Ogunleye, for the fact that many of the old slum areas are
not in hidden locations make it easier for government to incorporate
them in its urban renewal programmes. The formation of new slums is
prevented but people’s influx is however not controllable in Lagos
State, knowing full well that no legislation that frown against
migration to the city. But government will do well if it opens up new
settlement with the necessary infrastructure put in place. Although,
government has embarked on infrastructure renewal projects that include
the execution of on-going projects such as the light rail scheme from
Orile to Mile 2, the redevelopment of the Lagos-Badagry expressway into
ten lanes incorporating BRT lanes and light rails, on-going
reconstruction of the Mile 12-Ikorodu road incorporating BRT lanes, the
recently commissioned Ejigbo- Ajao Estate link bridge, recovery and
redevelopment of loops hitherto used by criminals as hide-outs among
others could only become feasible with a sustained system of funding.
Notwithstanding the profoundness of these projects, it appears that much
still need to be done to meet the need of millions of commuters on
The condition of the environment also constitutes a major challenge
to the Lagos megacity city. Lagos, for instance, generates 10,000 tonnes
of waste daily, almost three times higher than what the whole of Ghana
generates daily. Also, the kind of industrial pollution experienced in
Lagos is second to none in the country. Maintenance of law and order is
another major challenge of the Lagos mega city. Though a mega city
status is conferred on a city as a result of population growth, building
and sustaining a model mega city is not a tea party as reflected in the
Lagos experience. In the case of Lagos, a major challenge, however, is
how to cope with the ever-increasing population of Lagos with its
attendant consequences on infrastructure
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
considers the solution to the challenges of Lagos mega-cities
characterized by urbanization as an effective urban renewal programme.
This approach is aimed at providing housing, environmental policies and
planning strategies appropriate for facing the challenges of the urban
growth and development. A megacity is usually defined according to the
United Nation as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess
of 10 million people. Some definitions also set a minimum level for
population density (at least 2,000 persons/square km). A megacity can be
a single metropolitan area or more metropolitan, depending on the
definitions and boundaries being used. However, the researcher will
provide an overview about urban renewal programme as a remedy to Lagos
Mega city challenges.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the challenges of the Lagos mega city.
- To identify the urban renewal programmes put in place by government of Lagos State in addressing Mega city challenges.
- To determine the effectiveness of urban renewal programmes in Lagos State.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the challenges of the Lagos mega city?
- What are the urban renewal programmes put in place by government of Lagos State in addressing Mega city challenges?
- What is the effectiveness of urban renewal programmes in Lagos State?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
- The outcome of this study will educate the general public on how
an effective urban renewal programmes can curb mega city challenges.
This will also sensitize the policy makers on the need to introduce an
urban renewal programme in controlling issue related to megacity
problems in their territory.
- This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars
and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this
field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new
explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
on infrastructure renewal programmes as a remedy to Lagos mega city
challenges will cover all the programmes set up by the Lagos State
government at tackling infrastructural challenges created as a result of
the mega city. This study will also cover the issues leading to
infrastructural decay in the State.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in
sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in
the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other
academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for
the research work.
Ayeni, B. (2008), “Lagos: Problems and Planning in Third World Cities”, St. Martin's Press, New York.
R. (2003), “Political Control of Urban Planning and Management”,
Managing Fast Growing Cities: New Approaches to Urban Planning and
Management. Longman, London, pp. 176-206.
Halla, F. (1994), “A Coordinating and Participatory Approach to Managing Cities”, Habitat International, Vol.18 No 3, pp. 19-31.
Linden, E. (1993), “Mega-cities”, Time Magazine, 11 January, pp. 141-2,
Tim, M. (2003), “Cairo Megacity“, Travel Guides Hotel Reviews; virtualtourist.com.