THE USE OF “UTAZI” LEAF EXTRACT (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF LIFE OF A LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER


THE USE OF “UTAZI” LEAF EXTRACT (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF LIFE OF A LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

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THE USE OF “UTAZI” LEAF EXTRACT (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF LIFE OF A LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER
ABSTRACT
Sorghum beer is an indigenous African alcoholic beverage that has been longtraditionally brewed in the Savannah region of Nigeria; over the years there has been a problem with the Keep ability of these beers. Contemporally, a conceptual approachof hopping these beers with an indigenous hop extracts; Utazi (Gongronemalatifolium) has relatively improved its chemical properties compared to the Unhopped beer. This has been proven from the following; appreciable decrease in its ethanolcontent, total acidity, volatile acidity, Aspergilus prevalence from the forth day of its bench storage relative to the Unhopped beer which manifested in the second day. Thisclearly shows that the hopped sorghum beer with Utazi has a decreased rate ofdeterioration compared to the conventional Unhopped counterpart.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page = = = i
Certification page = = = ii
Dedication = = = iii
Acknowledgement = = = iv
List of figures = = = v
List of tables = = = vi
Table of contents = = = vii-xi
Abstract = = = xii
CHAPTER ONE = = =1
1.0 Introduction = = = 1-2
1.2 Aims and objectives = = 2
CHAPTER TWO = = =3
2.0 Literature review = = 3
2.1 Historical overview = = 3-4
2.2 Brewing of Beer = = 52.
2.1 Contemporal Western Brewing Process = 5-72.
2.2 Indigenous African brewing process = = 7-8
2.3 Raw materials for brewing = = 8-9
2.3.1 Starch Source = = 9-10
2.3.2 Water = = 10
2.3.3 Hops = = 11
2.3.3.1 Hop substitutes = = 12
2.3.3.2 Utazi (Gongronema latifolium). = = 12-13
2.3.3.3 Chemical properties of ‘Utazi’
2.3.5 Baker’s yeast = = 15
2.4 Biochemistry and microbiology ofBrewing and malting= = = 16
2.4.1 Malting and kilning = = 16
2.4.2 Miling and mashing = = 16
2.4.3 Chemistry of mashing = = 17
2.4.4 Souring = = 17
2.4.5 Boiling = = 17-18
2.4.6 Straining = = 18
2.4.7 Alcoholic fermentation = = 18-19
2.4.8 Aging , Filtering and Package = = 19
2.4.9 Spoilage = = 20
2.4.91 Beer spoilage organisms = = 20-22
2.5 Chemistry of fermentation process = = 22-25
2.5.1 Alcoholic fermentation process = = 26-27
2.6 Types of beers = = 27
2.6. 1 European types = = 27-28
2.6.2 Indigenous African beers = = 28
2.6.2.1 Classification of fermented AfricanBeers = 29
2.6.2.2 Pito = = 30
2.6.2.3 Merissa = = 30-31
2.6.2.4 Bouza = = 31-32
2.7 Local production of Burukutu = = 33-34
2.7.1 Nature of its malting process = = 34
2.8 Some indigenous African non alcoholicbeverages = 35
2.8.1 Ogi = = = 36
2.8.2 Banku = = = 36
2.9 Cereals = = = 37
2.9.1 Millet = = = 38
2.9.1.2 Scientific classification = = = 38-39
2.9.1.1.3 Current uses of millet = = = 39-40
2.9.1.1.4 Other uses of millet = = = 40-41
2.9.2 Sorghum = = = 41-42
2.9.2.1 Scientific classification = = = 42
2.9.2.2 Uses of sorghum = = = 43-44
CHAPTER THREE = = =45
3.0 Materials and method = = = 45
3.1 Materials = = = 45
3.1.1 Chemicals and reagents = = = 45
3.1.2 Glasswares and equipments = =45-47
3.2 Preparation of samples = = = 47
3.2.1 Methods = = = 47
3.2.2 Ingredients = = = 47
3.2.3 Methods of preparation = = 47-48
3.2.4 Activation of yeast = = 48
3.2.5 Preparation of Utazi leaf extracts = = 48
3.2.6 Preparation of reagents = = 49
3.2.6.11% phenolphthalein = = 49
3.2.6.2 0.1m NaoH = = 49
3.3 Method of Chemical Analysis = = 49
3.3.1 Total Acidity = = 49
3.3.2 Fixed Acidity = = 50
3.3.3 Volatile Acidity = = 50
3.3.4 pH Determination = = 50
3.3.5 Specific Gravity = = 51
3.3.6 Total dissolved Solids (TDS) = = 51
3.3.7 Total suspended Solids (TSS) = = 51-52
3.3.8 Ethanol Contents = = 52
3.3.9 Microbial Count = = 52-53
3.3.9.1 Procedures for the preparation theof media = 53
3.3.9.2 Procedures for culturing plates = = 54
3.3.9.3 Procedures for the identification of Organisms = 54
CHAPTER FOUR = = 55
4.0 Results = = 55
4.1 Parameters generated from Hopped andUnhopped sorghum Beers with (G. latifolium) = =58
4.2 Specific gravity of bench stored Sorghum BeerHopped with Utazi (G. latifolim) and withoutHops = 56
4.3 Total Acidity of bench stored Sorghum BeerHopped with Utazi (G. latifolium) and withoutHops = 57
4.4 Ethanol content of bench stored Sorghum BeerHopped with Utazi (G. latifolium) and withoutHops = 58
4.5 Microbial count of bench stored SorghumBeer with Hops Utazi(G. latifolium) = 59
4.6 Microbial count of bench stored SorghumBeer without Hops Utazi(G. latifolium) = 59
CHAPTER FIVE = =60
5.0 Discussion and conclusion. = = 60
5.1 Discussion of Results = = 60-65
5.2 Conclusion = = 65-66
5.3 Recommendations = = 66
References = = 67-69
Appendix = = 70-72
CHAPTER ONE1.0 INTRODUCTION:

Beer is an alcoholic beverage made from cereal grains, usually barley, but alsocorn, sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, and oats. Beer is made using a process calledfermentation, in which microscopic fungi called yeast consume sugars in the grain,converting them to alcohol and carbon dioxide gas (Michael,et al, 2004). Over 70styles of beer are available today. Each style derives its unique characteristics fromits ingredients and subtle differences in its brewing process (Gunsch, 2010).Throughout history, wherever cereal grains were grown, humans made a beerlike beverage from them: they used wheat in Mesopotamia, Barley in Egypt, Millet andSorghum in other parts of Africa, rice in Asia, and corn in the Americas. Today, beer making is a major industry worldwide (Dornbush,et al, 2006).Our indigenous African Beers are sourced fermented drinks made withSorghum, Maize or Millet. ‘Pito’ is a dark brown traditional alcoholic beverage of Binis in the western part of Nigeria prepared from malted grains (Maize, Sorghumor both) with a pleasant sour taste (Ekundayo,et al,1969). ‘Burukutu’ anotherindigenous alcoholic drink made from sorghum,Savannah region of Nigeria(Uveve, etal , 200)The production process of both drinks involvesfermentation atits i

THE USE OF “UTAZI” LEAF EXTRACT (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF LIFE OF A LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

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A Research proposal for the use of “utazi” leaf extract (gongronema latifolium) as a means of extending the shelf life of a locally brewed sorghum beer:
A Review on the use of “utazi” leaf extract (gongronema latifolium) as a means of extending the shelf life of a locally brewed sorghum beer, “utazi”, leaf, extract project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Sorghum beer is an indigenous African alcoholic beverage that has been longtraditionally brewed in the Savannah region of Nigeria; over the years there has been a problem with the Keep ability of these beers. Contemporally, a conceptual approachof hopping these beers with an indigenous hop extracts; Utazi (Gongronemalatifolium) has relatively improved its chemical properties compared to the Unhopped beer. This has been proven from the following; appreciable decrease in its ethanolcontent, total acidity, volatile acidity, Aspergilus prevalence from the forth day of its bench storage relative to the Unhopped beer which manifested in the second day. Thisclearly shows that the hopped sorghum beer with Utazi has a decreased rate ofdeterioration compared to the conventional Unhopped counterpart... brewing science project topics

THE USE OF “UTAZI” LEAF EXTRACT (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF LIFE OF A LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : BREWING SCIENCE
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 65 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

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