1.1 AN OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
effort in organization is indispensable. It constitutes a complex phenomenon to
managers of such organization to comprehend. Accordingly, it is believed that
every behaviour is a goal directed. Thus, for an organization or individual to
engage in any productive venture, it must have underlying fundamental factors
including the individual in that direction. Hence the effect of work
environment in achieving set target for the organization must be in adequate
condition. Therefore, the nature of office concerned with these things that
influence workers productivity, which constitute the “why” of people
behaviours? Why do people do things? Why is Ifeoma’s moral higher than
Ngozi’s?, what are these increases in work productivity? These questions can be
answered with the understanding of the nature of work environment and how these
affect productivity. However, the organizational target can only be achieved if
the environment is conducive. Work environment consists of the office
buildings, its furniture and layout as well as the physical conditions under
which workers operate. it is also concerned with the external factors to the
business which the office serves, the
industry or other activities within which the business lies, the custom and
laws of the community within which they operates. These environment factors are
always changing and the office must react to the changes, but hoe does the
customs and laws reduce workers morale? This question can be answered after
investigation. Office and work environment are dynamic, but the most dynamic
factors in the office is human factor. Workers today are more educated than
before. They are more likely to raise questions about their environment of work
since management itself dynamic pro. It has adhered and addresses itself to the
provision of good environment of work for workers productivity. But what are
those increases that enhance productivity? Therefore, answer will be made after
investigations. However, poor work environment and bad conditions have posed a
great danger to workers health and therefore make them to work with less joy
and enthusiasms and work progress is hampered and disrupted. An understanding
of the effect of work environment on the productivity of employees cannot be
over-emphasized or seen as overstatement in every organization. Experience has
shown that workers are directly influenced by the environment they find
themselves or were their competence will achieve nothing in terms of productivity
if the environment is not conducive. This is in line saying in respect of
workers in public enterprises today specially those in Delta Line and his issue
of unproductive nature of workers is compounded with the poor nature of the
environment. Therefore, because of the adverse effect of work environment on
morale of employees, the need for provision of good physical work environment
for workers was stated by Mill in 1930
after the first world war. During this period, various management were concerned
with the importance of maintaining loyalty and morale through the elimination
of irritants such as temperatures, noise and pollution from their environment.
This was later spread out to include a wider area of disturbing influences like
feeling of insecurity in relation to employment, unfairness on the part of
supervision and not being accepted by one’s fellow employees. According to Mills (1983), the need for standard of working condition received legal
backing by 1963 law and act of parliament which made it mandatory for all
business organization to provide the minimum standard of interest that will enhance the performance of
employees as an objective.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Every organization is set
up for a purpose and such purpose which
is generally referred to as the
objective and this cannot be achieved if
the environment looks unhealthy. The absence
of important of work material as
a result of non availability of some
necessary office facilities like
air condition, rug, good ventilation in
some of the department in the company is a common
feature. Some office or department looks depressing and un-stimulating.
Some of them have no louvers, light and some with uncompleted roofs. The
state of affairs do not compete favorable with
other office outside, some
office with dirty and scattered environment, most of the departments has small
floor space with materials
tables, chairs, papers, files and
other things scattered
here and there. Some office were furnished without due regard to the
relationship between colour selection and workers morale. Some of these
facilities has colour which makes the office to be dark; in some of the
department’s work service are wrongly arranged. It is known from workers view point that the work of accounting typing etc needs good
quality of light because of visual discrimination involved. As a result of non availability of
good work environment, the performance of employees is in a declining state.
Most departmental manager in the company pay no attention in
accomplishing the departmental set objectives, as to be recognized and promoted at the expense of workers
or employees welfare. These acts of
negligence by the mangers have gone a long way to reduce workers performance or
morale. The state of affairs in the company has resulted to negative attitude
by the employees which is inimical to the progress and accomplishment of the company’s
set objective. With an attempt to answer the questions in the research work,
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to
investigate and identify the effect of work environment in Delta Line,
ascertaining whether inadequacy of the various conditional factors can affect
productivity of employee. It is also geared toward ascertaining whether the
nature of work environment lead to low productivity, absenteeism and lateness
to investigate the level of productivity of workers under healthy environment.
It is also to suggest strategies for enhancing the productivity of workers in
the company. Hence the objective of Delta Line is as follows;
1. To create job opportunity for Deltans and
to train technicians in the field of motor vehicle mechanic, welding,
electrical work, pain ting and driving
2. To provide a reliable and affordable
transportation for Deltans in particular and Nigeria in general.
3. Enlarge the revenue bas of the state by
operating a profit oriented limited liability company.
of the company has repositioned the company on the path of productivity and to
serve our commuters better it has embarked on a major policy decision that
brought life to its operation.
Board of Directors Office
DELTA TRANSPORT SERVICE LIMITED ORGANOGRAM
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In the study, the following were
examined with a view of finding answers that will benefit the organization.
are the effects of work place environment?
2. How does the effect of bad environment
affect the performance of workers?
does poor working environment affect the
are those factors that enhance productivity?
does customs and laws reduces workers morale?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research statement of the
following hypotheses have been developed
Hi: A conducive work environment has positive
effect on employees productivity
Ho: A conducive work environment has no positive
effect on employee’s productivity.
Hi: Provision of good environment is deemed to
be the most potent among workers to enhance productivity.
Ho: Provision of good environment does not deemed
to be the most potent among workers to enhance productivity.
and laws encourages workers morale.
and laws does not encourages workers morale.
Hi: The nature of work environment has positive
effect on workers productivity
Ho: The nature of work environment has no
positive effect on workers productivity.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work centers on those
who are employed by organization to work for it. In other words, the study is X-raying
all the workers in Delta Transport Service (Delta Line) as a special regard
which is the research study and it covers the permanent site of all company
known as mega workshop and administrative site, its loading bay in Asaba town
and other substation outside the town
such as Onitsha, Oleh, Agbor., Lagos Warri, Jos etc and it cuts across all
categories of workers in this company ranging from managers,
drivers, clerks and others. This area will assist the researcher to carry out a
thorough research and analysis in other to really ascertain the effect of work
environment on the productivity of workers or employee.
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Many people in an organization try to
attain a higher level safety or job security in their place of work. And this
study when completed should be of immense help to different organization and
individuals. It will help to highlight the effect of work environment
on the productivity of
employees in Delta Line , so that the management will look into the
problems with a view to make an
improvement on its environment. It will enable the management to
create a minimum standard of good working environment for workers to achieve
optimum productivity. The study is intended to highlight management to create
monetary incentive alone cannot motivate employees to better productivity
without the provision of good environment under which they operate. Moreover,
it will assist to uphold or testify the idea that good environment is very
important and indispensable to growing needs of workers. It will also be
beneficial to prospective students who will need some information contained in
this work to guide their own research work which is related
to the present study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A general setback to most
research works are: office facilities, human resources and job security
are the major constraints expected to limit the extend of a study of this type,
since observation interviews and questionnaire shall be constitute, the basic
data gathering. The methods shall have
projected effects on perfectness of this research, not withstanding, the
researcher shall do a detail work on the
subject which would ensure attainment of
the objective upon which this research work was originally provided.
1.9 DEFINITION OF MAJOR TERMS
Definition of terms is to be
specifically, understand for clarity and easy understanding of applied meaning
of such terms as used in the context of this research work taking into
cognizance the prevailing circumstance.
a. Loading Bay: This are loading and unloading point
for vehicles (http://wiki openttd.org)
The surroundings in which a person, animals or plant lives (Derek 1997
this is the capacity of a group’s member to maintain belief in an institution
or goal particularly in the fall of opposition or hardship. Morale is often
referenced by authority as a generic value judgment of the will power,
obedience, and self discipline of a group tasked with performing duties
assigned by a superior. According to Alexander H. Leighton , ‘ Morale is the capacity of a
group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a
Security: This is the probability that an individual will keep his or her
job; it has been found that people have more job security in times of expansion
and less in time of recession. Also some
laws (such as the Rights Acts 1964)
e. Productivity: Is a measure of the efficiency of production.
Productivity is a ratio of production output to what is required to produce it
(inputs.). Productivity is defined as a total output per unit of an input.
These definitions are short but too general and insufficient to make the phenomenon
productivity understandable a more detailed theory of productivity is needed,
which defines and explains the phenomenon, productivity and makes it
comprehensible in order to obtain a measurable form of productivity. The
efficiency with which things are produced
f. Prospective: Literally means “looking forward” it can
also be refer to an event that is likely or expected to happen in the future.
effect of work environment on the employees productivity is deem necessary for the productivity increment and high moral to work. The work environment
has a far reaching effect on the morale of workers, but receive very little
research attention specifically, this study is geared towards examining the
various conditional factors of work environment ascertaining whether inadequacy
of each of the various conditional factors can affect the productivity of
workers. Base on the conclusion, work environment is improved such as neat
ness, noiseless, proper arranged and ventilated environment.
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J.C (1974) Office management London,
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